Abstract

Complex images, inscribed into the spatial profile of a laser beam or even a single photon, offer a highly efficient method of data encoding. Here we present a prototype system which can quickly modulate between arbitrary images. We display an array of holograms, each defined by its phase and intensity profile, on a spatial light modulator. The input beam is then steered by an acousto-optic modulator to one of these holograms, where it is converted into the desired light mode. We demonstrate switching between characters within three separate alphabets at a switching rate of up to10 kHz. This rate is limited by our detection system, and we anticipate that the system is capable of far higher rates. Furthermore our system is not limited in efficiency by channel number, making it ideal for quantum communication applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. I. Kolobov, C. Fabre, “Quantum limits on optical resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3789–3792 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Andrews, E. Mohamed Babiker , The Angular Momentum of Light (Cambridge University, 2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon. 7, 354–362 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Thalhammer, R. W. Bowman, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Speeding up liquid crystal slms using overdrive with phase change reduction,” Opt. Express 21, 1779–1797 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. Li, J. Kim, M. J. Escuti, “Orbital angular momentum generation and mode transformation with high efficiency using forked polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8236–8245 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, C. Chen, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, R. W. Boyd, “Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 21, 30196–30203 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, D. Papar, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Slussarenko, E. Karim, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and control of different-order orbital angular momentum states for communication links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 61–65 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).
  27. B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon. 7, 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Thalhammer, R. W. Bowman, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Speeding up liquid crystal slms using overdrive with phase change reduction,” Opt. Express 21, 1779–1797 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, C. Chen, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, R. W. Boyd, “Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 21, 30196–30203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

Y. Li, J. Kim, M. J. Escuti, “Orbital angular momentum generation and mode transformation with high efficiency using forked polarization gratings,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8236–8245 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, E. Karim, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and control of different-order orbital angular momentum states for communication links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, D. Papar, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. I. Kolobov, C. Fabre, “Quantum limits on optical resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3789–3792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, M. P.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, E.

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews, E. Mohamed Babiker , The Angular Momentum of Light (Cambridge University, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Aparo, L.

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, M.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berchera, I. R.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berkhout, G. C. G.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bourderionnet, J.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bourennane, M.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowman, R. W.

Boyd, R. W.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, C. Chen, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, R. W. Boyd, “Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 21, 30196–30203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G.

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cañas, G.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Cassemiro, K. N.

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerf, N. J.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Courtial, J.

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dada, A. C.

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Lesegno, B. V.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delboulbé, A.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

Etcheverry, S.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Fabre, C.

M. I. Kolobov, C. Fabre, “Quantum limits on optical resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3789–3792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farcy, R.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fickler, R.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon. 7, 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Genovese, M.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, A.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, D.

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. J. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez, E. S.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
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Jha, A.

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
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R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
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Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
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B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
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Lapkiewicz, R.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
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M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
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Lavery, M. P. J.

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
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Leach, J.

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
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J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
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Li, Y.

Lima, G.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Loiseaux, B.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
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Love, G. D.

Magana-Loaiza, O. S.

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A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
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Malik, M.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, C. Chen, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, R. W. Boyd, “Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 21, 30196–30203 (2013).
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R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, D. Papar, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Marrucci, L.

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
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S. Slussarenko, E. Karim, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and control of different-order orbital angular momentum states for communication links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 61–65 (2011).
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L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, D. Papar, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
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Mestre, M.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
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Miatto, F. M.

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
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Mohamed Babiker, E.

D. L. Andrews, E. Mohamed Babiker , The Angular Momentum of Light (Cambridge University, 2012).
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Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
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D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon. 7, 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nogueira, W. A. T.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

O’Brien, J. L.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, C.

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

G. Thalhammer, R. W. Bowman, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, M. Ritsch-Marte, “Speeding up liquid crystal slms using overdrive with phase change reduction,” Opt. Express 21, 1779–1797 (2013).
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M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papar, D.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, D. Papar, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piccirillo, B.

Plick, W. N.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polycarpou, C.

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruvost, L.

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pryde, G. J.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramelow, S.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K. J.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon. 7, 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Robertson, D. J.

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, B.

M. Mirhosseini, O. S. Magana-Loaiza, C. Chen, B. Rodenburg, M. Malik, R. W. Boyd, “Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 21, 30196–30203 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J.

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, C.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Santamato, E.

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, E. Karim, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, E. Santamato, “Efficient generation and control of different-order orbital angular momentum states for communication links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 61–65 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schaeff, C.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciarrino, F.

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

Spagnolo, N.

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sponselli, A.

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Steinhoff, N. K.

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thalhammer, G.

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vaziri, A.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venturi, G.

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitelli, C.

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xavier, G. B.

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zavatta, A.

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Mestre, B. V. de Lesegno, R. Farcy, L. Pruvost, J. Bourderionnet, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, D. Dolfi, “Fast reconfigurable and transient-less holographic beam-shaping realized by a aom-slm device,” Euro. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 269 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photon. (4)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon. 7, 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Vitelli, N. Spagnolo, L. Aparo, F. Sciarrino, E. Santamato, L. Marrucci, “Joining the quantum state of two photons into one,” Nat. Photon. 7, 521–526 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (3)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, “Twisted photons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 305–310 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Dada, J. Leach, G. Buller, M. J. Padgett, E. Andersson, “Experimental high-dimensional two-photon entanglement and violations of generalized bell inequalities,” Nat. Phys. 7, 677–680 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Lanyon, M. Barbieri, M. P. Almeida, T. Jennewein, T. C. Ralph, K. J. Resch, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. Gilchrist, A. G. White, “Simplifying quantum logic using higher-dimensional hilbert spaces,” Nat. Phys. 5, 134–140 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Mair, A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, A. Zeilinger, “Entanglement of the orbital angular momentum states of photons,” Nature 412, 313–316 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

M. P. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, A. Sponselli, J. Courtial, N. K. Steinhoff, G. A. Tyler, A. E. Willner, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient measurement of an optical orbital-angular-momentum spectrum comprising more than 50 states,” New J. Phys. 15, 013024 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Giovannini, F. M. Miatto, J. Romero, S. M. Barnett, J. P. Woerdman, M. J. Padgett, “Determining the dimensionality of bipartite orbital-angular-momentum entanglement using multi-sector phase masks,” New J. Phys. 14, 073046 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, M. J. Padgett, “Increasing the dimension in high-dimensional two-photon orbital angular momentum entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 012334 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Kolobov, C. Fabre, “Quantum limits on optical resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3789–3792 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Polycarpou, K. N. Cassemiro, G. Venturi, A. Zavatta, M. Bellini, “Adaptive detection of arbitrarily shaped ultrashort quantum light states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053602 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. G. Berkhout, M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial, M. W. Beijersbergen, M. J. Padgett, “Efficient sorting of orbital angular momentum states of light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

R. W. Boyd, A. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Etcheverry, G. Cañas, E. S. Gómez, W. A. T. Nogueira, C. Saavedra, G. B. Xavier, G. Lima, “Quantum key distribution session with 16-dimensional photonic states,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2316 (2002).

Science (2)

R. Fickler, R. Lapkiewicz, W. N. Plick, M. Krenn, C. Schaeff, S. Ramelow, A. Zeilinger, “Quantum entanglement of high angular momenta,” Science 338, 640–643 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340, 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. L. Andrews, E. Mohamed Babiker , The Angular Momentum of Light (Cambridge University, 2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. HeNe: helium neon laser, PBS: polarising beam splitter, FR: Faraday rotator, λ/2: half-wave plate, AOM: acousto optic modulator, SLM: spatial light modulator. The focal lengths of the lenses are given in millimetres. The four beams exiting the AOM indicate the effect of changing the drive frequency of the AOM. The inset picture shows a false colour image of a sample hologram array displayed on the SLM. Steering along the blue path to the left-most hologram produces the shown output mode in the transmission channel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hologram arrays, theoretical predictions and beam profiles for three different communication alphabets. The alphabet in a) has an azimuthal number l, varying from 0 to 3 and b) has a radial number p varying from 1 to 4. The alphabet in c) consists of the Latin characters ‘A’ to ‘D.’ The top row shows the (false colour) holograms for each alphabet and the time at which the beam is switched to that hologram. The middle row shows the expected intensity in the output channel when the beam is shone on the portion of the hologram shown above. The bottom row shows the corresponding experimental data. The data in the bottom row of a) and c) has been intensity scaled such that the maximum intensity is white. The data in the bottom row of b) for the p=2, 3 and 4 modes has been enhanced by a factor 2, 3 and 4 respectively to emphasise the low intensity features.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CCD line profiles of the output beam as the AOM directs the beam to 4 different holograms. The data is displayed as solid lines, and the coloured fill shows an ideal LG mode, corrected for the Gaussian profile of the beam incident on the SLM; a) LG modes with l = 0, 1, 2 and 3 units of orbital angular momentum (left to right), all with p = 0. b) LG modes defined by their radial quantum number p = 1, 2, 3 and 4 (left to right), all with l = 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Trajectory of the QPD signal in time. The x and y signals are taken directly from the QPD and plotted vs. time. The semi-transparent planes indicate the pattern in which the beam is shaped at a particular time. The colored parts of the trajectory indicate the regions in which the output is stable at the desired location. The grey projected lines are the projection of the trajectory onto the axes. The hologram arrays shown above correspond to the patterns displayed on the SLM as the ‘simplified alphabet.’

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Predicted system performance as a function of the alphabet size. Top: Estimated modulation rate (red curve) and data capacity (blue) for the used system in Fig. 1. Bottom: Resulting data transfer rate considering delay due to AOM switching and propagation (crosses), and for a system without propagation delay for a 1D (squares) and 2D (triangles) hologram array. b) Schematic diagram of a proposed experimental setup for larger alphabets which avoids propagation delay. The encoded beam is shown for l = 3 and p = 0.

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