Abstract

It has been demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the retina can produce visual perception for blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. In order to let the retinal chip generate enough electrical stimulation, the near infrared ray source is added to enhance the stimulation current. However, it is a challenge to design a head-mounted display (HMD) that covers both visible and infrared rays. Since the HMD system covers such a broad spectral band, large color aberrations will be induced. In order to eliminate these large aberrations, a mirror system is adopted that will create a no color aberration system. We also use two freeform mirrors (FFMs) to reduce residual aberrations such as spherical aberrations and coma. The FFMs serve as the near-eye viewing optics that magnifies the image which is displayed through a microdisplay. Based on a 0.61 in. microdisplay, the HMD system demonstrates a diagonal field of view (FOV) of 30 degree and an f/# of 3.75, with an exit pupil diameter of 8 mm and eye clearance of 15mm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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  27. D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

M. A. Green, K. Emetry, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

C. Hamel, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Orphanet J. Rare Dis. 1(1), 40 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. Mozaffarieh, S. Sacu, A. Wedrich, “The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence,” Nutr. J. 2(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. McLaughlin, K. Moffitt, J. Pfeiffer, “Human factors guidelines for binocular near-to-eye displays,” SID Digest 34(1), 280–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Cheng, D.

Cui, S.

S. Cui, Y. C. Soh, “Linearity Indices and Linearity Improvement of 2-D Tetralateral Position-Sensitive Detector,” IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev. 57(9), 2310–2316 (2010).

Dai, G. M.

de Jong, P. T.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emetry, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emetry, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D. S.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emetry, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, C.

C. Hamel, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Orphanet J. Rare Dis. 1(1), 40 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emetry, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

Kamins, T.

J. Loudin, K. Mathieson, T. Kamins, “Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 7885, 788513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kempen, J.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Liu, X.

Loudin, J.

J. Loudin, K. Mathieson, T. Kamins, “Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 7885, 788513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, V. N.

Mathieson, K.

J. Loudin, K. Mathieson, T. Kamins, “Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 7885, 788513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McCarty, C.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, C.

C. McLaughlin, K. Moffitt, J. Pfeiffer, “Human factors guidelines for binocular near-to-eye displays,” SID Digest 34(1), 280–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, P.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, K.

C. McLaughlin, K. Moffitt, J. Pfeiffer, “Human factors guidelines for binocular near-to-eye displays,” SID Digest 34(1), 280–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mozaffarieh, M.

M. Mozaffarieh, S. Sacu, A. Wedrich, “The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence,” Nutr. J. 2(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, B.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemesure, B.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Colmain, B. J.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

Pfeiffer, J.

C. McLaughlin, K. Moffitt, J. Pfeiffer, “Human factors guidelines for binocular near-to-eye displays,” SID Digest 34(1), 280–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sacu, S.

M. Mozaffarieh, S. Sacu, A. Wedrich, “The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence,” Nutr. J. 2(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soh, Y. C.

S. Cui, Y. C. Soh, “Linearity Indices and Linearity Improvement of 2-D Tetralateral Position-Sensitive Detector,” IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev. 57(9), 2310–2316 (2010).

Talha, M. M.

Tomany, S. C.

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, S. H.

Wang, C. M.

Wang, Y.

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emetry, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wedrich, A.

M. Mozaffarieh, S. Sacu, A. Wedrich, “The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence,” Nutr. J. 2(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. S. Friedman, B. J. O’Colmain, B. Muñoz, S. C. Tomany, C. McCarty, P. T. de Jong, B. Nemesure, P. Mitchell, J. KempenEye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, “Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 122(4), 564–572 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev. (1)

S. Cui, Y. C. Soh, “Linearity Indices and Linearity Improvement of 2-D Tetralateral Position-Sensitive Detector,” IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev. 57(9), 2310–2316 (2010).

Nutr. J. (1)

M. Mozaffarieh, S. Sacu, A. Wedrich, “The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence,” Nutr. J. 2(1), 1–8 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Orphanet J. Rare Dis. (1)

C. Hamel, “Retinitis pigmentosa,” Orphanet J. Rare Dis. 1(1), 40 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

M. A. Green, K. Emetry, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

SID Digest (1)

C. McLaughlin, K. Moffitt, J. Pfeiffer, “Human factors guidelines for binocular near-to-eye displays,” SID Digest 34(1), 280–283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, “Review of Specific Geometrical Aberrations and How to Get Rid of Them” in Optical System Design Second Edition (Mc Graw Hill, 2008), pp. 59–94.

Zemax, “ZERNIKE STANDARD POLYNOMIALS” in zemax user’s manual, (Jan. 16, 2012), pp.203–204.

M. Bass, V. N. Mahajan, and E. V. Stryland, “Zernike Circle Polynomials” in Handbook of Optics Vol.2 Third Edition,(Mc-Graw Hill, 2010) pp.11.6–11.12.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering Fourth Edition, (Mc-Graw Hill, 2008).

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, and S.-T. Wu, “Near-to-Eye Systems” in Introduction to Microdisplays, (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006), pp. 341–342.

eMagin, “SVGA+ (Rev3) OLED-XL™ Specification Document” http://www.emagin.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/SVGA_Rev3_XL_User_Manual_Datasheet_Rev_4.pdf

R. Dinyari, J. Loudin, J. Huie, D. Palanker, and P. Peumans, “A curvable silicon retinal implant,” IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, Technical Digest, (2009), pp. 1–4.

J. Loudin, K. Mathieson, T. Kamins, “Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis,” Proc. SPIE Vol. 7885, 788513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Kuo, P.-K. Lin, Y.-C. Huang, Z.-K. Su, H. Li, H.-C. Cheng, M.-J. Sui, C.-C. Chiao, Y.-T. Huang, Y.-C. Tsai, J.-W. Pan, H.-C. Hun, C.-W. Chiang, J. Ohta, T. Noda, T. Tokuda, K. Sasagawa, C.-H. Kuan, and C.-Y. Wu, “An On-Chip Solar-Cell Powered CMOS Chip with Divisional Power Supply Scheme for Subretinal Prosthesis,” presented at the international Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, CA, 9–13 Feb.2014.

W. J. Smith, “Eyepiece and Magnifiers,” in Modern Lens Design Second Edition, (Mc-Graw Hill, 2005), pp. 151–152.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, and M. Ogawa, “A Full Color Eyewear Display using Holographic Planar Waveguides,” in the SID 08 Meeting Digest (2008), pp.89–92.

C.-Y. Wu, P.-K. Lin, L.-J. Lin, W.-C. Yang, and C. Wan, “Power controlling apparatus applied to biochip and operating method thereof, ” US Patent 7622702 Nov,24 (2009).

PVEDUCATION, http://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/solar-cell-operation/spectral-response

R. E. Fischer, B. Tadic-Galeb, and P. R. Yoder, “Requirements for Visual Optical Systems,” in Optical System Design Second Edition (Mc Graw Hill, 2008), pp. 161–165.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the reflective HMD optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tracing the marginal rays of specific fields to find the constraints of the system structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The HMD optimization process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spot size improvement in each step.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Full field spot diagram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polychromatic MTF plot of this HMD system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Grid distortion of this HMD system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Overlay MTF of this HMD system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Protective coating effect (b) side-view of the assembled HMD.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The grid distortion of the assemble HMD.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and Specifications of the HMD System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Zernike Wavefront Analysis of the Fields (0°, 0°), (12°, 8.5°), and (12°, −8.5°) in Each Step

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of Aberration Improvement for the HMD in Each Step

Tables Icon

Table 4 Reasonable Tolerance Table for This Head-mound Display

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparsion for Different Design Methods

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ Y A 0 Y B 2 1 Z A 0 Z B 2 1 } ;
{ Y A 1 Y A 2 1 Z A 1 Z A 2 1 } ;
{ Y B 1 Y A 3 1 Z B 1 Z A 3 1 } ;
{ Y B 0 Y B 3 1 Z B 0 Z B 3 1 } ;
{Eye clearance 15};

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