Abstract

Perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells show potential to reach > 30% conversion efficiency, but require careful optical control. We introduce here an effective light-management scheme based on the established pyramidal texturing of crystalline silicon cells. Calculations show that conformal deposition of a thin film perovskite solar cell directly onto the textured front surface of a high efficiency silicon cell can yield front surface reflection losses as low as 0.52mA/cm2. Combining this with a wavelength-selective intermediate reflector between the cells additionally provides effective light-trapping in the high-bandgap top cell, resulting in calculated absolute efficiency gains of 2 – 4%. This approach provides a practical and effective method to adapt existing high efficiency silicon cell designs for use in tandem cells, with conversion efficiencies approaching 35%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1991–1993 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. A. Green, “The path to 25% silicon solar cell efficiency: history of silicon cell evolution,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 17(3), 183–189 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Progress in Photovolt: Res. Appl. 18(5), 346–352 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]

2014

T. P. White, N. N. Lal, and K. R. Catchpole, Tandem solar cells based on high-Efficiency c-Si bottom cells: top cell requirements for > 30% efficiency, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 208–214 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, H. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Nanopyramid structure for ultrathin cSi tandem solar cells,” Nano Letters 14(5), 2563–2568 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

S. J. Kim, G. Y. Margulis, S. B. Rim, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3), A305–A312 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Snaith, “Perovskites: the emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3623–3630 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501, 395–399 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Baker-Finch and K. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Progress in Photovolt: Res. Appl. 18(5), 346–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Metallic nanoparticles as intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 121105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “The path to 25% silicon solar cell efficiency: history of silicon cell evolution,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 17(3), 183–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

J. G. Mutitu, S. Shi, C. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film silicon solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15238–15248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversion efficiency at low cost,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 9(2), 123–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

Z. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Martí and G. Araújo, “Limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion in multigap systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 43, 203–222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, G.

A. Martí and G. Araújo, “Limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion in multigap systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 43, 203–222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Atature, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Baggerman, J.

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bailat, J.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

Baker-Finch, S.

S. Baker-Finch and K. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

Barnett, A.

Billet, A.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

Bonifacio, L. D.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boothroyd, C.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Buehlmann, P.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

Burschka, J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

T. P. White, N. N. Lal, and K. R. Catchpole, Tandem solar cells based on high-Efficiency c-Si bottom cells: top cell requirements for > 30% efficiency, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 208–214 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and light-trapping for tandem solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics (to be published).

Chen, C.

Chutinan, A.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Creazzo, T.

de Jong, M. M.

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

De Wolf, S.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Deschler, F.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dominé, D.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

Duchamp, M.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Progress in Photovolt: Res. Appl. 18(5), 346–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eperon, G. E.

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Metallic nanoparticles as intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 121105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feltrin, A.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Stat. Solidi 2(4), 163–165 (2008).

Ferrazza, F.

Z. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, D.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Gao, P.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grätzel, M.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Progress in Photovolt: Res. Appl. 18(5), 346–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “The path to 25% silicon solar cell efficiency: history of silicon cell evolution,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 17(3), 183–189 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Third generation photovoltaics: Ultra-high conversion efficiency at low cost,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 9(2), 123–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hashiguchi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Haug, F-J.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Herz, L. M.

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Higler, R.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Progress in Photovolt: Res. Appl. 18(5), 346–352 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y. L.

G. Li, H. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Nanopyramid structure for ultrathin cSi tandem solar cells,” Nano Letters 14(5), 2563–2568 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holovsky, J.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

Huettner, S.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Humphry-Baker, R.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichihashi, Y.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Jarausch, D. D.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, M. B.

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501, 395–399 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kai, M.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Kherani, N. P.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

Klintberg, L.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

G. Li, H. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Nanopyramid structure for ultrathin cSi tandem solar cells,” Nano Letters 14(5), 2563–2568 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, N. N.

T. P. White, N. N. Lal, and K. R. Catchpole, Tandem solar cells based on high-Efficiency c-Si bottom cells: top cell requirements for > 30% efficiency, IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 208–214 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Lal, T. P. White, and K. R. Catchpole, “Optics and light-trapping for tandem solar cells on silicon,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics (to be published).

Lam, Y. M.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Metallic nanoparticles as intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 121105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ledinsky, M.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, T.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Leong, K.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, H. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Nanopyramid structure for ultrathin cSi tandem solar cells,” Nano Letters 14(5), 2563–2568 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

G. Li, H. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Nanopyramid structure for ultrathin cSi tandem solar cells,” Nano Letters 14(5), 2563–2568 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-W.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501, 395–399 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lop er, P.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mahtani, P.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, G. Y.

Martí, A.

A. Martí and G. Araújo, “Limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion in multigap systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 43, 203–222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, E.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Masuko, K.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Mathews, N.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

S. J. Kim, G. Y. Margulis, S. B. Rim, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3), A305–A312 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K.

S. Baker-Finch and K. McIntosh, “Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl. 19(4), 406–416 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Menelaou, C.

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.-J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S-J.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mutitu, J. G.

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niesen, B.

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S-J. Moon, P. Lop er, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F-J. Haug, J-H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, P. G.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Ozin, G. A.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. O’Brien, A. Chutinan, K. Leong, N. P. Kherani, G. A. Ozin, and S. Zukotynski, “Photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for micromorph solar cells: a comparative study,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4478–4490 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, S.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pellet, N.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499, 316–319 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

S. J. Kim, G. Y. Margulis, S. B. Rim, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3), A305–A312 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, R. T.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Price, M.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Puzzo, D. P.

P. G. O’Brien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rath, J. K.

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Rim, S. B.

S. J. Kim, G. Y. Margulis, S. B. Rim, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S3), A305–A312 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “The interplay of intermediate reflectors and randomly textured surfaces in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173510 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Metallic nanoparticles as intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 121105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salim, T.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S. R.

S. B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, and P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Shigematsu, M.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Snaith, H.

H. Snaith, “Perovskites: the emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3623–3630 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Snaith, H. J.

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501, 395–399 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonneveld, P. J.

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Stranks, S. D.

G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, C. Menelaou, M. B. Johnston, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Formamidinium lead trihalide: a broadly tunable perovskite for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 982–988 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Huettner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atature, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T. C.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 399–407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, M.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

Takahama, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

van Rijn, C. J. M.

M. M. de Jong, P. J. Sonneveld, J. Baggerman, C. J. M. van Rijn, J. K. Rath, and R. E. I. Schropp, “Utilization of geometric light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells: simulations and experiments,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 22(5), 540–547 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Z. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, and F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient “honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1991–1993 (1998).
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Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 36),” Progress in Photovolt: Res. Appl. 18(5), 346–352 (2010).
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K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” presented at the 40th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Denver, USA, 8–13 June 2014.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Wide-angle view of textured surface showing conformal deposition of layers in cross-section. (b) Three possible light paths for inverted pyramid texture [8]. (c) Schematic cross-section of internal optical structure: the intermediate reflector transmits low-energy light (red arrow) into the bottom c-Si cell, and reflects short wavelength light (indigo arrow) back into the top cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance and absorptance in the top and bottom cells for various cell structures vs. wavelength. All structures have a thickness-optimized SLARC and top cell thickness of 150nm. (a) Absorptance in top and bottom cells. (b) Front-surface reflectance and equivalent reflected Jsc values for each structure. A normalized AM1.5G solar spectrum is overlaid in gray for reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Jsc enhancement factor for each cell structure vs. top cell thickness. This factor is the ratio of the top cell Jsc of a given structure to the Jsc of the planar cell at equal top cell thickness

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Jsc for top and bottom cells for each structure vs. top cell thickness. (b) Efficiency of each structure vs. top cell thickness.

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