Abstract

A metallic hole-array structure was inserted into a tandem solar cell structure as an intermediate electrode, which allows a further fabrication of a novel and efficient hybrid organic-inorganic tandem solar cell. The inserted hole-array layer reflects the higher-energy photons back to the top cell, and transmits lower-energy photons to the bottom cell via the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) effect. In this case light absorption in both top and bottom subcells can be simultaneously enhanced via both structural and material optimizations. Importantly, this new design could remove the constraints of requiring lattice-matching and current-matching between the used two cascaded subcells in a conventional tandem cell structure, and therefore, the tunnel junction could be no longer required. As an example, a novel PCBM/CIGS tandem cell was designed and investigated. A systematic modeling study was made on the structural parameter tuning, with the period ranging from a few hundreds nanometers to over one micrometer. Surface plasmon polaritons, magnetic plasmon polaritons, localized surface plasmons, and optical waveguide modes were found to participate in the EOT and the light absorption enhancement. Impressively, more than 40% integrated power enhancement can be achieved in a variable structural parameter range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, and K. Araki, “Super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3068–3077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  12. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133904 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Mergel and Z. Qiao, “Dielectric modelling of optical spectra of thin In2O3: Sn films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), 794–801 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).
  25. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  27. B. J. Lee, L. P. Wang, and Z. M. Zhang, “Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11328–11336 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Lee, L. P. Wang, and Z. M. Zhang, “Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11328–11336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, and K. Araki, “Super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3068–3077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mergel and Z. Qiao, “Dielectric modelling of optical spectra of thin In2O3: Sn films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), 794–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M. I.

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ameri, T.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araki, K.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, and K. Araki, “Super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3068–3077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailat, J.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bailly, S.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baruch, P.

P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, T.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bielawny, A.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Billet, A.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacio, L. D.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buehlmann, P.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

de Bettignies, R.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Defranoux, C.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dennler, G.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derkacs, D.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Devos, A.

P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dominé, D.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltrin, A.

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florya, F.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garriga, M.

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guillerez, S.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F. J.

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, E.

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kherani, N. P.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Knez, M.

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, M.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambertz, A.

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Landsberg, P. T.

P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. J.

Lee, S.-M.

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leon, M.

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leong, K.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-W.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lungenschmied, C.

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mahtani, P.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, D.

D. Mergel and Z. Qiao, “Dielectric modelling of optical spectra of thin In2O3: Sn films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), 794–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miclea, P. T.

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niquille, X.

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

OBrien, P. G.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parrott, J. E.

P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, M.

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puzzo, D. P.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Z.

D. Mergel and Z. Qiao, “Dielectric modelling of optical spectra of thin In2O3: Sn films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), 794–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, K.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rincon, C. A. D.

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soederstroem, T.

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steidl, L.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takamoto, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, and K. Araki, “Super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3068–3077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Terrazzoni, V.

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uepping, J.

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Üpping, J.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. P.

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Lee, L. P. Wang, and Z. M. Zhang, “Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11328–11336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, and K. Araki, “Super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3068–3077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zentel, R.

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. M.

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Lee, L. P. Wang, and Z. M. Zhang, “Coherent thermal emission by excitation of magnetic polaritons between periodic strips and a metallic film,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11328–11336 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Üpping, A. Bielawny, R. B. Wehrspohn, T. Beckers, R. Carius, U. Rau, S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Kroll, T. Pertsch, L. Steidl, and R. Zentel, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal intermediate reflectors for enhanced light-trapping in tandem solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(34), 3896–3900 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Soederstroem, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, V. Terrazzoni, and C. Ballif, “Asymmetric intermediate reflector for tandem micromorph thin film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 063501 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Fahr, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Sandwiching intermediate reflectors in tandem solar cells for improved photon management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 133904 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Resonance transmission or absorption in deep gratings explained by magnetic polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. I. Alonso, M. Garriga, C. A. D. Rincon, E. Hernandez, and M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 74(5), 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

T. Ameri, G. Dennler, C. Lungenschmied, and C. J. Brabec, “Organic tandem solar cells: A review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(4), 347–363 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Mergel and Z. Qiao, “Dielectric modelling of optical spectra of thin In2O3: Sn films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), 794–801 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Munday and H. A. Atwater, “Large integrated absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells by combining metallic gratings and antireflection coatings,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2195–2201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, S. Wu, K. Reinhardt, Y. Lu, and S. Chen, “Broadband light absorption enhancement in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2012–2018 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. Bielawny, J. Uepping, P. T. Miclea, R. B. Wehrspohn, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Peters, L. Steidl, R. Zentel, S.-M. Lee, M. Knez, A. Lambertz, and R. Carius, “3D photonic crystal intermediate reflector for micromorph thin-film tandem solar cell,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(12), 2796–2810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi-R. (1)

D. Dominé, P. Buehlmann, J. Bailat, A. Billet, A. Feltrin, and C. Ballif, “Optical management in high-efficiency thin-film silicon micromorph solar cells with a silicon oxide based intermediate reflector,” Phys. Status Solidi-R. 2(4), 163–165 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

P. G. OBrien, Y. Yang, A. Chutinan, P. Mahtani, K. Leong, D. P. Puzzo, L. D. Bonifacio, C.-W. Lin, G. A. Ozin, and N. P. Kherani, “Selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal solar spectrum splitters made of alternating sputtered indium-tin oxide and spin-coated silica nanoparticle layers for enhanced photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 102, 173–183 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Florya, S. Bailly, R. de Bettignies, S. Guillerez, and C. Defranoux, “Modeling the short-circuit current density of polymer solar cells based on P3HT:PCBM blend,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(5), 405–410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, and K. Araki, “Super high-efficiency multi-junction and concentrator solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(18-19), 3068–3077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Baruch, A. Devos, P. T. Landsberg, and J. E. Parrott, “On some thermodynamic aspects of photovoltaic solar-energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 36(2), 201–222 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics (Wiley, 2002).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) are the schematic illustrations of the novel and the comparative conventional planar tandem solar cells. (c) and (d) are their equivalent electrical connections, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a, b) 3D (a) and 2D (b) schematic illustrations of the PCBM/CIGS tandem cell. (c, d) Real (c) and imaginary (d) parts of the optical constants of PCBM and CIGS. (c) and (d) share the same legend. The inset in (d) shows a detailed schematic of the Ag hole-array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a, b, c) Transmittance of the incident power into the top (Tt) and the bottom (Tb) subcells, when p = 300 nm (a), 550 nm (b), 1000 nm (c), f = 0.5, tm = 50 nm. (d) Mapping of the Tb spectrum with varying periods and with fixing f = 0.5, tm = 50 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a, b) Normalized field distribution at the y-z cross-section at the peak 780 nm (a) and 820 nm (b) wavelengths, when p = 300 nm, w = 150 nm, tm = 50 nm. (c) Tb spectra with different p values around 300 nm. (d) Tb spectra with different tm values around 50 nm. The inset in (d) exhibits the distances of the two SPPs peaks varying with tm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Normalized field distribution at the y-z cross-section at 920 nm wavelength, when p = 550 nm, w = 275 nm, tm = 50 nm. (b) Tb spectra with different p values around 550 nm. (c) Tb spectra with different tm values around 50 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a, b) Normalized field distribution at the y-z cross-section at 820 nm (a) and 1050 nm (b) wavelength, when p = 1000 nm, w = 500 nm, tm = 50 nm. (c) Tb spectra with different p values around 500 nm, while fixing w = 500 nm. (d) Tb spectra with different tb values around 100 nm. (e) Tb spectra with different tm values around 50 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a, b) Absorptance of the top (a) and the bottom (b) subcells, when p = 300 nm, 550 nm and 1000 nm, f = 0.5, tm = 50 nm. The results from the planar cell structure are shown with black solid lines as comparison. (c) Absorptance in the Ag HA. (d) Mapping of the Ab spectra with varying periods and fixing f = 0.5, tm = 50 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Epower varying with p, when f = 0.5, tm = 50 nm. (b) Relative absorptance spectra AR for different p values and the planar structure for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a, b, c) Ab spectra with different f values and the planar structure, when p = 300 nm (a), 550 nm (b) and 1000 nm (c), and fixing tm = 50 nm. (d) Epower varying with f, for different p values.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a, b, c) Ab spectra with different tm values and the planar structure, when p = 300 nm (a), 550 nm (b) and 1000 nm (c), and fixing f = 0.5. (d) Epower varying with tm, for different p values.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a, b, c) Ab spectra with different tITO values, when p = 300 nm (a), 550 nm (b) and 1000 nm (c), and fixing f = 0.5. (d) Epower varying with tITO, for different p values.

Metrics