Abstract

We demonstrate numerically that two-dimensional arrays of ultrathin CdTe nano-cylinders on Ag can serve as an effective broadband anti-reflection structure for solar cell applications. Such devices exhibit strong absorption properties, mainly in the CdTe semiconductor regions, and can produce short-circuit current densities of 23.4 mA/cm2, a remarkable number in the context of solar cells given the ultrathin dimensions of our nano-cylinders. The strong absorption is enabled via excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) under plane wave incidence. In particular, we identified the key absorption mechanism as enhanced fields of the SPP standing waves residing at the interface of CdTe nano-cylinders and Ag. We compare the performance of Ag, Au, and Al substrates, and observe significant improvement when using Ag, highlighting the importance of using low-loss metals. Although we use CdTe here, the proposed approach is applicable to other solar cell materials with similar absorption properties.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. de Wild-Scholten, “Energy payback time and carbon footprint of commercial photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 296–305 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, “Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4774–4782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

G. Pellegrini, P. Mazzoldi, and G. Mattei, “Asymmetric plasmonic nanoshells as subwavelength directional nanoantennas and color nanorouters: a multipole interference approach,” J. Phys. Chem. 116, 21536–21546 (2012).

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Bhat, S. R. Rao, S. Shintri, and R. N. Jacobs, “Blanket and patterned growth of CdTe on (211)Si substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1712–1715 (2012).

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Pu, Q. Feng, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Perfect absorption of light by coherently induced plasmon hybridization in ultrathin metamaterial film,” Plasmonics 7(4), 733–738 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5489–5497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Day, O. Neumann, N. K. Grady, and N. J. Halas, “Nanostructure-mediated launching and detection of 2D surface plasmons,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7566–7572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1255–1259 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. R. Catchpole and M. A. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063105 (2007).

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

2004 (2)

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, V. Canevari, and A. Podestà, “Recent progress on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 803–814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665–3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, and P.-S. Kim, “Surface-plasmon photonic band gaps in dielectric gratings on a flat metal surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 123–129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, B.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Anwar, F.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665–3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, I.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Bhat, I. B.

I. B. Bhat, S. R. Rao, S. Shintri, and R. N. Jacobs, “Blanket and patterned growth of CdTe on (211)Si substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1712–1715 (2012).

Boltasseva, A.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bosio, A.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, V. Canevari, and A. Podestà, “Recent progress on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, “Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4774–4782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Britt, J.

J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucoli, G.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
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I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
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Canevari, V.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, V. Canevari, and A. Podestà, “Recent progress on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 795–801 (2004).
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Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
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K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
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K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

K. R. Catchpole and M. A. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063105 (2007).

Chavez, J. J.

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clews, P.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz-Campa, J.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cruz-Campa, J. L.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, J. K.

J. K. Day, O. Neumann, N. K. Grady, and N. J. Halas, “Nanostructure-mediated launching and detection of 2D surface plasmons,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7566–7572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. J. de Wild-Scholten, “Energy payback time and carbon footprint of commercial photovoltaic systems,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 119, 296–305 (2013).
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I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665–3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, J.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doty, F. P.

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

Fan, S.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Q.

M. Pu, Q. Feng, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Perfect absorption of light by coherently induced plasmon hybridization in ultrathin metamaterial film,” Plasmonics 7(4), 733–738 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fenollosa, R.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
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J. Britt and C. Ferekides, “Thin‐film CdS/CdTe solar cell with 15.8% efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(22), 2851–2852 (1993).
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Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Fofang, N. T.

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, “Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4774–4782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E. C.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzales, E.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González, M. U.

Grady, N. K.

J. K. Day, O. Neumann, N. K. Grady, and N. J. Halas, “Nanostructure-mediated launching and detection of 2D surface plasmons,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7566–7572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).

K. R. Catchpole and M. A. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063105 (2007).

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Grubbs, R. K.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

Gupta, V. P.

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

J. K. Day, O. Neumann, N. K. Grady, and N. J. Halas, “Nanostructure-mediated launching and detection of 2D surface plasmons,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7566–7572 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1255–1259 (2009).
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S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
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Hale, G. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Han, D.

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665–3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C.

M. Pu, Q. Feng, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Perfect absorption of light by coherently induced plasmon hybridization in ultrathin metamaterial film,” Plasmonics 7(4), 733–738 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R. N.

I. B. Bhat, S. R. Rao, S. Shintri, and R. N. Jacobs, “Blanket and patterned growth of CdTe on (211)Si substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1712–1715 (2012).

Jeong, S.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.-S.

J. Yoon, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, and P.-S. Kim, “Surface-plasmon photonic band gaps in dielectric gratings on a flat metal surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 123–129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5489–5497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665–3667 (2003).
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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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Lee, G.

J. Yoon, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, and P.-S. Kim, “Surface-plasmon photonic band gaps in dielectric gratings on a flat metal surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 123–129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Efficiency of local light-plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3665–3667 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Li, X.

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, V.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5489–5497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, “Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4774–4782 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

M. Pu, Q. Feng, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Perfect absorption of light by coherently induced plasmon hybridization in ultrathin metamaterial film,” Plasmonics 7(4), 733–738 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

G. Pellegrini, P. Mazzoldi, and G. Mattei, “Asymmetric plasmonic nanoshells as subwavelength directional nanoantennas and color nanorouters: a multipole interference approach,” J. Phys. Chem. 116, 21536–21546 (2012).

Mazzoldi, P.

G. Pellegrini, P. Mazzoldi, and G. Mattei, “Asymmetric plasmonic nanoshells as subwavelength directional nanoantennas and color nanorouters: a multipole interference approach,” J. Phys. Chem. 116, 21536–21546 (2012).

McClure, J.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meseguer, F.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, J.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mirin, N. A.

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1255–1259 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

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N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
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S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
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I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
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W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5489–5497 (2012).
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J. K. Day, O. Neumann, N. K. Grady, and N. J. Halas, “Nanostructure-mediated launching and detection of 2D surface plasmons,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7566–7572 (2010).
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B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
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Nielson, G. N.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, “Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4774–4782 (2013).
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J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
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J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
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Oh, C.-H.

J. Yoon, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, and P.-S. Kim, “Surface-plasmon photonic band gaps in dielectric gratings on a flat metal surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 123–129 (2003).
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Okandan, M.

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, “Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4774–4782 (2013).
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J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
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S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1063–1065 (1999).
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B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
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S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palosz, W.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Pellegrini, G.

G. Pellegrini, P. Mazzoldi, and G. Mattei, “Asymmetric plasmonic nanoshells as subwavelength directional nanoantennas and color nanorouters: a multipole interference approach,” J. Phys. Chem. 116, 21536–21546 (2012).

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073105 (2011).

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Pimentel, A. A.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
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Pluym, T.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
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Podestà, A.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, V. Canevari, and A. Podestà, “Recent progress on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 795–801 (2004).
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Polman, A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
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H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
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B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
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M. Pu, Q. Feng, C. Hu, and X. Luo, “Perfect absorption of light by coherently induced plasmon hybridization in ultrathin metamaterial film,” Plasmonics 7(4), 733–738 (2012).
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E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
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S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon Bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14496–14510 (2010).
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I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficient unidirectional ridge excitation of surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7228–7232 (2009).
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I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, G. Brucoli, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and A. Boltasseva, “Efficiency of local surface plasmon polariton excitation on ridges,” Phys. Rev. B 78(11), 115115 (2008).
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Ramiro-Manzano, F.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
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Randhawa, S.

Rao, S.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Rao, S. R.

I. B. Bhat, S. R. Rao, S. Shintri, and R. N. Jacobs, “Blanket and patterned growth of CdTe on (211)Si substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1712–1715 (2012).

Renger, J.

Resnick, P. J.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

J. L. Cruz-Campa, M. Okandan, P. J. Resnick, P. Clews, T. Pluym, R. K. Grubbs, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, and G. N. Nielson, “Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 mu m thick crystalline silicon solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(2), 551–558 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, N.

N. Romeo, A. Bosio, V. Canevari, and A. Podestà, “Recent progress on CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 795–801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salazar, M.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Schaper, C.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Semendy, F.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Shi, L.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shintri, S.

I. B. Bhat, S. R. Rao, S. Shintri, and R. N. Jacobs, “Blanket and patterned growth of CdTe on (211)Si substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1712–1715 (2012).

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, S. H.

J. Yoon, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, and P.-S. Kim, “Surface-plasmon photonic band gaps in dielectric gratings on a flat metal surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 123–129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, M. Decker, N. T. Fofang, S. Liu, E. Gonzales, J. Dominguez, T. S. Luk, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. Kivshar, “Tailoring directional scattering through magnetic and electric resonances in subwavelength silicon nanodisks,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7824–7832 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trivedi, S.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Tuzer, U.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2), A237–A245 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).

Walters, R. J.

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, D. K.

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wijewarnasuriya, P.

S. Shintri, S. Rao, C. Schaper, W. Palosz, S. Trivedi, F. Semendy, P. Wijewarnasuriya, and I. Bhat, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (211)B CdTe on nanopatterned (211)Si,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 1716–1719 (2012).

Wong, B. M.

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, “High-efficiency polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 803–814 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xifré-Pérez, E.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, G. Lee, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, and P.-S. Kim, “Surface-plasmon photonic band gaps in dielectric gratings on a flat metal surface,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(1), 123–129 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, R.

J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone-polymer solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2971–2976 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. W.

J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C.-M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zi, J.

X. Li, D. Han, F. Wu, C. Xu, X. Liu, and J. Zi, “Flat metallic surfaces coated with a dielectric grating: excitations of surface plasmon–polaritons and guided modes,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(48), 485001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zubia, D.

B. Aguirre, D. Zubia, R. Ordonez, F. Anwar, H. Prieto, C. Sanchez, M. Salazar, A. A. Pimentel, J. Michael, X. Zhou, J. McClure, G. Nielson, and J. Cruz-Campa, “Selective growth of CdTe on nano-patterned CdS via close-space sublimation,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(7), 2651–2657 (2014).
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J. J. Chavez, D. K. Ward, B. M. Wong, F. P. Doty, J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, V. P. Gupta, D. Zubia, J. McClure, and X. W. Zhou, “Defect formation dynamics during CdTe overlayer growth,” Phys. Rev. B 85(24), 245316 (2012).
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J. L. Cruz-Campa, G. N. Nielson, P. J. Resnick, M. Okandan, R. Young, D. Zubia, and V. Gupta, “Ultrathin and micro-sized solar cell performance optimization via simulations,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21, 1114–1126 (2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3D schematic of an array of CdTe nano-cylinders on Ag substrate. The CdTe nano-cylinders have a diameter of 340 nm and a height of 110 nm. The periodicity is 440 nm. (b) Reflectivity spectrum of the nano-patterned structure of CdTe nano-cylinders on Ag substrate (blue curve) and unpatterned CdTe thin film with the nano-cylinders’ thickness (red curve) from normal incidence plane waves. (c) Electric field intensity plots at the wavelength of 0.8 µm. The plot shows intense fields between CdTe nano-cylinders (dotted rectangles) and also at the interface between the CdTe nano-cylinders and Ag (white dash line). The intense fields at the interface of CdTe and Ag pertain to SPPs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SPP dispersion obtained from FDTD simulations of an array of CdTe nano-cylinders on Ag substrate (red dots) and unpatterned CdTe thin film on Ag substrate (blue diamonds). The red dots are obtained by extracting SPP wavelengths from electric field intensity plots such as shown in (b-d). The dash gray line represents the light line in air. (b)-(d) Electric field intensity plots at wavelengths: 0.5 µm, 0.67 µm and 0.75 µm. Color map of the field is as in Fig. 1(c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of arrays of CdTe nano-cylinders on (a) Ag, (b) Au, and (c) Al substrates. The contribution from CdTe (blue), metal (green), and total absorption (red) are separately shown. As expected, the total absorption in red is identical to that obtained from 1-R (black).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Field intensity enhancement versus wavelength and x-coordinate in a unit cell at a distance of 10 nm from the CdTe/Ag interface cutting through the nano-cylinder. The x-axis spans one period (440 nm) of the structure. (b) Similar to (a), showing the spatial absorption contour. It is evident that most of the absorption resides within the CdTe nano-cylinders. The white dash line shows the location of the CdTe band edge.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra as in Fig. 3(a) for a complete photovoltaic circuit obtained including a second conducting electrode implemented with insulating SiO2 and conductive ITO as shown in the inset. Here, ITO and SiO2 are treated as lossless dielectrics.

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