Abstract

We investigate two types of internal light-extraction layer structures for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) that consist of silica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in high-refractive-index TiO2 matrices. The composite of silica NPs and TiO2 matrices was coated on the glass substrate and fabricated with and without a SiO2 planarization layer. An increase in the optical out-coupling efficiency by a factor of 2.0 was obtained at a high luminance of 3,000 cd/m2 from OLEDs containing the silica NPs embedded in TiO2 matrices between glass substrates and Zn-doped In2O3 (IZO) electrodes after additional planarization processes. This is consistent with the analytical result using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Randomly distributed silica NPs acting as scattering centers could reduce the optical loss when extracting light. By using additional planarization processes with a PECVD-derived SiO2 layer, one can assure that smoother surfaces provide higher out-coupling efficiency, which attain 100% and 97% enhancements in power (lm/W) and current (cd/A) efficiencies, respectively.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).
  10. H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.
  12. T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2013

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1987

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Cheng, H.-C.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-O.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eschenbaum, C.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Franke, S.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, C.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukushi, Y.

Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Gil, T. H.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, Y.

Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, J.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Hsu, M.-H.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

Huang, Y.-H.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, J.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-B.

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. M.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Kim, Y.-C.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koh, T.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kominami, H.

Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lakner, H.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Lee, J.-R.

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-H.

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Li, X.-H.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-W.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-J.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maier-Flaig, F.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

May, C.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, Y.

Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pargner, A.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-G.

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Preinfalk, J.

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, S.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tak, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tien, K.-C.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

Toerker, M.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-J.

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Youn, W.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

W. H. Koo, W. Youn, P. Zhu, X.-H. Li, N. Tansu, and F. So, “Light extraction of organic light emitting diodes by defective hexagonal-close-packed array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(16), 3454–3459 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, J. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

Y. Fukushi, H. Kominami, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Effect of ITO surface state to the aging characteristics of thin film OLED,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 244(1–4), 537–540 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Fujita, K. Ishihara, T. Ueno, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Optical and electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes with two-dimensional photonic crystals in organic/electrode layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(6A), 3669–3677 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, T.-W. Koh, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, S. Yoo, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Bi-directional organic light-emitting diodes with nanoparticle-enhanced light outcoupling,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 1079–1087 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

T. H. Gil, C. May, S. Scholz, S. Franke, M. Toerker, H. Lakner, K. Leo, and S. Keller, “Origin of damages in OLED from Al top electrode deposition by DC magnetron sputtering,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 322–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Bocksrocker, J. Hoffmann, C. Eschenbaum, A. Pargner, J. Preinfalk, F. Maier-Flaig, and U. Lemmer, “Micro-spherically textured organic light emitting diodes: A simple way towards highly increased light extraction,” Org. Electron. 14(1), 396–401 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, H.-C. Cheng, Y.-J. Lu, K.-C. Tien, H.-W. Lin, C.-L. Lin, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, “Enhancing color gamut of white OLED displays by using microcavity green pixels,” Org. Electron. 11(2), 247–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec.

H.-W. Chang, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Huang, and C.-C. Wu, “OLEDs integrated with internal scattering structure for enhancing optical outcoupling,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tec. 41(1), 50–53 (2010).

Thin Solid Films

Y.-H. Tak, K.-B. Kim, H.-G. Park, K.-H. Lee, and J.-R. Lee, “Criteria for ITO (indium-tin-oxide) thin film as the bottom electrode of an organic light emitting diode,” Thin Solid Films 411(1), 12–16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H.-W. Chang, M. C. Gather, L. Müller-Meskamp, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater.in press.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic drawings (a,b) and in-plane AFM images (c,d) for devices A and B. The tilted AFM images are added as insets.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TEM cross-sectional images of the light out-coupling layers introduced to (a)−(c) device A and (d)−(f) device B. The overview (a,d), clear interfaces between layers (b,e), and the composite layers of SiO2 and TiO2 (c,f) are shown with high resolution, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM cross-sectional images of light-scattering NPs layers for (a) device A and (b) device B, confirming the air voids, silica, and TiO2 structures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

J–V characteristics of fabricated reference OLEDs (Refs. A and B) and devices A and B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a,d) Luminance (cd/m2) and (b,e) power (lm/W), and current efficiency (cd/A) as a function of current density (mA/cm2) for the reference OLEDs and devices. In addition, (c) and (f) show the enhancement ratio for both efficiencies as a function of luminance, and (f) includes photographs of OLEDs without (left) and with (right) a light-extraction layer (inset).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular distribution of emitted light for (a) Ref. A and device A and (b) Ref. B and device B. The solid lines represent Lambertian distributions. The emitted light intensities of each reference are normalized by those of the corresponding device (A and B, respectively) in the normal direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The simulated light-extraction enhancement ratios for different structures of (a) silica beads embedded in a TiO2 composite layer without SiO2 planarization, (b) a smooth TiO2 matrix with a SiO2 planarization layer, and (c) a rough TiO2 matrix with a SiO2 planarization layer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light-extraction enhancement contour map resulting from FDTD numerical analysis for a simple structure using a silica and TiO2 composite.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The variation of the enhancement ratio with respect to the air void content.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical Characteristics and Surface Roughness Measurements for Each Device

Tables Icon

Table 2 Power Efficiencies of the Fabricated Devices and Their Simulated and Measured Enhancements

Metrics