Abstract

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a quasi-crystal (QC) structure are analyzed and applied in a head-mounted display (HMD) system in this study. We adopt a hybrid simulated method to evaluate the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and far-field pattern in the air, and study the relationship between them. The simulation results show that OLEDs implanted with the QC structure can provide a collimated far-field pattern to increase the brightness. Using this 10-fold QC arrangement the maxima LEE of the OLEDs can be increased by 1.20 times. Compared with conventional OLEDs, the viewing angle of the OLED panel decreases from 120 degrees to 26 degrees with an improvement in the optical efficiency of the HMD system by 2.66 times. Moreover, the normalized on-axis intensity in the pupil of the eyepiece can be enlarged up to 3.95 times which suggests that the OLED panel can save 74.68% energy while achieving the same on-axis intensity as conventional OLEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

W. Xu and Y. Li, “The Effect of Anisotropy on Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic with Photonic Crystal Structure,” J. Nanomater. 2013, 969120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Jeong and J. H. Ko, “Optical Simulation Study on Effect of Diffusing Substrate and Pillow Lenses on the Outcoupling Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 17(3), 269–274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Matloub, M. Noori, and A. Rostami, “Reduction of guided waves in ITO/glass interface of white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs): Layer optimization,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(21), 5061–5063 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jia, I. Bita, and E. L. Thomas, “Photonic density of states of two-dimensional quasicrystalline photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

A. Ricciardi, I. Gallina, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, M. Pisco, V. Galdi, and A. Cusano, “Guided resonances in photonic quasicrystals,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6335–6346 (2009).
[PubMed]

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan and Q. Wang, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in OLED with two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 4(6), 353–356 (2006).

2005

2004

P. W. Zhai, Y. K. Lee, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Yang, “Implementing the near- to far-field transformation in the finite-difference time-domain method,” Appl. Opt. 43(18), 3738–3746 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Borchardt, “Developments in organic displays,” Mater. Today 7(9), 42–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ai, N.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altun, A. O.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Asano, T.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bita, I.

L. Jia, I. Bita, and E. L. Thomas, “Photonic density of states of two-dimensional quasicrystalline photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

Borchardt, J. K.

J. K. Borchardt, “Developments in organic displays,” Mater. Today 7(9), 42–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brutting, W.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

Cao, Y.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Castaldi, G.

Chang, Y. T.

Chen, K. Y.

Cho, S. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. G.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

Do, Y. R.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frischeisen, J.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukumoto, N.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Galdi, V.

Gallina, I.

Gerken, M.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. H.

Ho, Y. L.

Huh, J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. S.

S. S. Jeong and J. H. Ko, “Optical Simulation Study on Effect of Diffusing Substrate and Pillow Lenses on the Outcoupling Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 17(3), 269–274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jia, L.

L. Jia, I. Bita, and E. L. Thomas, “Photonic density of states of two-dimensional quasicrystalline photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kim, G. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. D.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ko, J. H.

S. S. Jeong and J. H. Ko, “Optical Simulation Study on Effect of Diffusing Substrate and Pillow Lenses on the Outcoupling Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 17(3), 269–274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwork, H. S.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, Y. H.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

Lemmer, U.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

W. Xu and Y. Li, “The Effect of Anisotropy on Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic with Photonic Crystal Structure,” J. Nanomater. 2013, 969120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

Luo, C.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, K.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Matloub, S.

S. Matloub, M. Noori, and A. Rostami, “Reduction of guided waves in ITO/glass interface of white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs): Layer optimization,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(21), 5061–5063 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, N.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noori, M.

S. Matloub, M. Noori, and A. Rostami, “Reduction of guided waves in ITO/glass interface of white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs): Layer optimization,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(21), 5061–5063 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. D.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

Pisco, M.

Reinke, N. A.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricciardi, A.

Riedel, B.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rostami, A.

S. Matloub, M. Noori, and A. Rostami, “Reduction of guided waves in ITO/glass interface of white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs): Layer optimization,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(21), 5061–5063 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sinapi, F.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Song, Y. W.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. W. Song, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “Far-field radiation of photonic crystal organic light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5864–5870 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, E. L.

L. Jia, I. Bita, and E. L. Thomas, “Photonic density of states of two-dimensional quasicrystalline photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, N.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Wang, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Wei, M. K.

Wong, M.

Xu, W.

W. Xu and Y. Li, “The Effect of Anisotropy on Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic with Photonic Crystal Structure,” J. Nanomater. 2013, 969120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R.

Yang, P.

Youn, J. R.

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. J.

Zhai, P. W.

Zheng, H.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. J. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. Huh, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3779 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J. W. Kang, H. D. Park, J. J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, D. G. Choi, K. D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S. H. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

J. Appl. Phys.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(9), 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, and W. Brutting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

J. Nanomater.

W. Xu and Y. Li, “The Effect of Anisotropy on Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic with Photonic Crystal Structure,” J. Nanomater. 2013, 969120 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Kor.

S. S. Jeong and J. H. Ko, “Optical Simulation Study on Effect of Diffusing Substrate and Pillow Lenses on the Outcoupling Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 17(3), 269–274 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

N. Nakamura, N. Fukumoto, F. Sinapi, N. Wada, Y. Aoki, and K. Maeda, “Glass Substrates for OLED Lighting with High Out-coupling Efficiency,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 40(1), 603–606 (2009).

Mater. Today

J. K. Borchardt, “Developments in organic displays,” Mater. Today 7(9), 42–46 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Mater.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttg.)

S. Matloub, M. Noori, and A. Rostami, “Reduction of guided waves in ITO/glass interface of white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs): Layer optimization,” Optik (Stuttg.) 124(21), 5061–5063 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, and S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, N. Ai, L. Wang, H. Zheng, C. Luo, Z. Jiang, S. Yu, Y. Cao, and J. Wang, “Roughening the white OLED substrate’s surface through sandblasting to improve the external quantum efficiency,” Org. Electron. 12(4), 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

L. Jia, I. Bita, and E. L. Thomas, “Photonic density of states of two-dimensional quasicrystalline photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023831 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

ZEBASE Optical Design Database user’s Guide Version 6.0. (2007), p. 50.

W. J. Smith, “Eyepiece and Magnifiers,” in Modern Lens Design, 2nd ed. (Mc-Graw Hill, 2005), pp. 151–152.

D. Armitage, I. Underwood, and S.-T. Wu, “Near-to-Eye Systems,” in Introduction to Microdisplays (John Wiley, 2006), pp. 341–342.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (Mc Graw Hill, 2008), pp. 160–161.

Website: http://www.emagin.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/SVGA_Rev3_XL_User_Manual_Datasheet_Rev_41.pdf

S. Kunić and Z. Šego, “OLED Technology and Display,” Int. Symp. ELMAR, 37–40 (2012).

C. H. Oh, H. J. Shin, W. J. Nam, B. C. Ahn, S. Y. Cha, and S. D. Yeo, “Technological Progress and Commercialization of OLED TV,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 239–242 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Website: http://www.emagin.com/

D. Kessler and M. Bablani, “Head-mounted optical apparatus using an OLED display,” U.S. patent 8094377 B2 (Jan. 10, 2012).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, 2000).

Website: http://optics.synopsys.com/lighttools/

Website: http://docs.lumerical.com/en/fdtd/user_guide_changing_the_far_field_index.html

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation flow chart for the hybrid method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical configuration of the OLEDs and the HMD system. The left-hand figure illustrated the hybrid method developed for connecting and evaluating the optical configuration. The right-hand figure shows the conventional OLED and the PC-based OLEDs. The thickness of the Al, electron transport layer, hole transport layer, ITO, SiNx, and the height of the PCs are 100 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm, 150 nm, 600 nm and 200 nm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The 3D layout of a 10-fold QC OLED with a glass dielectric rod embedded in the SiNx layer. The right-hand figure shows the top view of a 10-fold QC arrangement with a lattice constant of a.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The enhancement of LEE as a function of the lattice constant and the arrangement in the air. (b) The far-field pattern with QCs in air at a lattice constant of 0 nm, 500 nm or 800 nm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the results obtained with two different simulation methods. The relationships between the enhancement of the 10-fold QCs for the different lattice constants show that a maximum deviation of 2.5% which is within the reasonable range and the tendency of the calculated results are consistent.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The layout of the eyepiece, (b) relationship between normalized intensity distributions for the OLED panel, (c) and the normalized intensity distribution for the pupil of the eyepiece.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of three far-field patters in the HMD system

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f(x,y)= n=0 n fold /21 cos[2πxcos(2πn/ n fold )/a+2πysin(2πn/ n fold )/a]
EF= 400 700 P Des (θ,φ,λ) R 2 sin(θ)dθdφdλ 400 700 P Con (θ,φ,λ) R 2 sin(θ)dθdφdλ ,R1mm
γ(%)=(1 β α )×100%

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