Abstract

We present a systematic study of the effect of variation of the zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) layer thickness on the absorption characteristics of CIGS solar cells using a simulation program based on finite element method (FEM). We show that the absorption in the CIGS layer does not decrease monotonically with its layer thickness due to interference effects. Ergo, high precision is required in the CIGS production process, especially when using ultra-thin absorber layers, to accurately realize the required thickness of the ZnO, cadmium sulfide (CdS) and CIGS layer. We show that patterning the ZnO window layer can strongly suppress these interference effects allowing a higher tolerance in the production process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Liu, J. Hsieh, and S. Tung, “Extraction of optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by ellipsometry with various models,” Thin Solid Films 510, 32–38 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).
  11. P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−x Gax Se2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
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  20. J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).
  21. O. Isabella, J. Krč, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 101106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zang, A. Nakamura, and J. Temmyo, “Single cuprous oxide films synthesized by radical oxidation at low temperature for PV application,” Opt. Express 21, 11448–11456 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Chang and Y.-T. Chen, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum,” Opt. Express 19, 875–889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

2007 (2)

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, A. J. H. Wachters, and H. P. Urbach, “Finite-element model for three-dimensional optical scattering problems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 866–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Liu, J. Hsieh, and S. Tung, “Extraction of optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by ellipsometry with various models,” Thin Solid Films 510, 32–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

2003 (2)

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegard, J. Malmström, and M. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−x Gax Se2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Berenger, “Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baiba, F.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berenger, J.

J. Berenger, “Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Besbes, M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birkmire, R. W.

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−x Gax Se2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bodegard, M.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegard, J. Malmström, and M. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouttemy, M.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caratelli, D.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Chang and Y.-T. Chen, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum,” Opt. Express 19, 875–889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-T.

Y.-J. Chang and Y.-T. Chen, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coatings for metal-backed solar cells optimized using simulated annealing algorithm incorporated with solar spectrum,” Opt. Express 19, 875–889 (2011).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D. K. G.

Dimmler, B.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Edoff, M.

U. Malm, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “The stability in damp heat conditions of thin-film CIGS solar cells with different absorber thickness,” in Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris (2004), pp. 1890–1893.

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Erfurth, F.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Etcheberry, A.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerard, I.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Granet, G.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guillemoles, J.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guizal, B.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hassen, J. J.

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

Helfert, S.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, J.

Y. Liu, J. Hsieh, and S. Tung, “Extraction of optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by ellipsometry with various models,” Thin Solid Films 510, 32–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hupkes, J.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I-Ani, S. K. J.

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

Isabella, O.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Isabella, J. Krč, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 101106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, K.

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, O. T. A.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jehl, Z.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jovanov, V.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kasem, S. J.

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

Knipp, D.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

O. Isabella, J. Krč, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 101106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lincot, D.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Hsieh, and S. Tung, “Extraction of optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by ellipsometry with various models,” Thin Solid Films 510, 32–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lombez, L.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lundberg, O.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegard, J. Malmström, and M. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mahdi, M. A.

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

Mallick, S. B.

Malm, U.

U. Malm, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “The stability in damp heat conditions of thin-film CIGS solar cells with different absorber thickness,” in Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris (2004), pp. 1890–1893.

Malmström, J.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegard, J. Malmström, and M. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, A.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müllera, J.

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Naghavi, N.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

Nugrowati, A. M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paulson, P. D.

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−x Gax Se2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S. F.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

Polman, A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powalla, M.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Recha, B.

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Reetza, W.

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Schulte, M.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shafarman, W. N.

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−x Gax Se2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shrestha, S.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Solntsev, S.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springer, J.

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Stolt, L.

U. Malm, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “The stability in damp heat conditions of thin-film CIGS solar cells with different absorber thickness,” in Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris (2004), pp. 1890–1893.

Stolt, M.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegard, J. Malmström, and M. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sukharev, M.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Swadi, A. A.

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

Temmyo, J.

Tran-Van, P.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tung, S.

Y. Liu, J. Hsieh, and S. Tung, “Extraction of optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by ellipsometry with various models,” Thin Solid Films 510, 32–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

M. Xu, D. K. G. de Boer, C. M. van Heesch, A. J. H. Wachters, and H. P. Urbach, “Photoanisotropic polarization gratings beyond the small recording angle regime,” Opt. Express 18, 6703–6721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, A. J. H. Wachters, and H. P. Urbach, “Finite-element model for three-dimensional optical scattering problems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 866–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van de Nes, A. S.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Haver, S.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Heesch, C. M.

van Labeke, D.

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vanecekb, M.

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voorwinden, G.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wachters, A. J. H.

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wischmann, W.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. Xu, D. K. G. de Boer, C. M. van Heesch, A. J. H. Wachters, and H. P. Urbach, “Photoanisotropic polarization gratings beyond the small recording angle regime,” Opt. Express 18, 6703–6721 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zang, Z.

Zeman, M.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Isabella, J. Krč, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 101106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Isabella, J. Krč, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 101106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: Optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3, 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. (1)

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” Int. J. Nanoelectron. Mater. 2, 163–172 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. D. Paulson, R. W. Birkmire, and W. N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−x Gax Se2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. Berenger, “Perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

P. Lalanne, M. Besbes, J. P. Hugonin, S. van Haver, O. T. A. Janssen, A. M. Nugrowati, M. Xu, S. F. Pereira, H. P. Urbach, A. S. van de Nes, P. Bienstman, G. Granet, A. Moreau, S. Helfert, M. Sukharev, T. Seideman, F. Baiba, B. Guizal, and D. van Labeke, “Numerical analysis of a slit-groove diffraction problem,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 2, 07022 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

K. Jäger, O. Isabella, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, and M. Zeman, “Angular resolved scattering measurements of nano-textured substrates in a broad wavelength range,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 22, 105601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. (2)

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegard, J. Malmström, and M. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 42),” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 21, 827–837 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hupkes, M. Zeman, and D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Springer, B. Recha, W. Reetza, J. Müllera, and M. Vanecekb, “Light trapping and optical losses in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells deposited on surface-textured glass/ZnO substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 85, 1–11 (2005).

Thin Solid Films (2)

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: part II: cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519, 7212–7215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, J. Hsieh, and S. Tung, “Extraction of optical constants of zinc oxide thin films by ellipsometry with various models,” Thin Solid Films 510, 32–38 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U. Malm, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “The stability in damp heat conditions of thin-film CIGS solar cells with different absorber thickness,” in Proceedings of the 19th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris (2004), pp. 1890–1893.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional SEM image of a CIGS solar cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Constitution of a CIGS cell stack.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex refractive index [11] (a) and dielectric permittivity (b) of CIGS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Configuration of a flat multilayer stack.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption and reflection spectrum of CIGS cell stack with (a) glass and (b) air as top incidence medium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption in ZnO, CdS, CIGS and Mo layers of CIGS cell as a function of wavelength and CIGS layer thickness (from 100 nm to 2 μm). The thicknesses of the layers are: ZnO layer 500 nm; CdS layer 50 nm; and Mo layer 500 nm. The absorption rate is calculated with respect to the total incident field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption in ZnO, CdS, CIGS and Mo layers of CIGS cell as a function of wavelength and CIGS layer thickness (from 100 nm to 500 nm). The thicknesses of the layers are: ZnO layer 500 nm; CdS layer 50 nm; and Mo layer 500 nm. The absorption rate is calculated with respect to the total incident field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption spectra of the CIGS and Mo layers for varying CIGS thickness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Total reflection of CIGS cell as a function of wavelength and ZnO layer thickness. Top incidence medium: glass. The thicknesses of the layers are: CIGS layer 500 nm; CdS layer 50 nm; and Mo layer 500 nm. The reflection rate is calculated with respect to the total incident field.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Absorption efficiency map in different layers of CIGS cell as a function of wavelength and ZnO layer thickness. Top incidence medium: glass. The thicknesses of the layers are: CIGS layer 500 nm; CdS layer 50 nm; and Mo layer 500 nm. The absorption rate is calculated with respect to the total incident field.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Constitution of a CIGS cell stack with patterning on the surface of ZnO layer.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effect of the structural patterning of the ZnO layer on the absorption characteristics. OThe top incidence medium is glass. The grating heights (h) are: (a) 50 nm; (b) 100 nm; and (c) 200 nm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of the near field distributions of a cell stack with 200 nm tall grating structure and of a flat cell stack for incident light of 750 nm.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

= Re [ E ( r ) e i ω t ] ,
= Re [ H ( r ) e i ω t ] ,
× E = i ω B ,
× H = i ω D + J p ,
D = ρ p ,
B = 0 .
ε = ε + i ε = n ˜ 2 = ( n 2 k 2 ) + i 2 n k
× E = i ω μ 0 H ,
× H = i ω ε 0 ε ̳ E + J p .
1 2 E J p * = i ω ( ε 0 2 ε ̳ E E * μ 0 2 | H | 2 ) 1 2 ( E × H * ) .
V 1 2 Re ( E J p * ) d 3 r + ω ε 0 2 V ε ̳ E E * d 3 r = S 1 2 Re ( E × H * ) n d 2 r ,
ω ε 0 2 V , n ε ̳ E E * d 3 r = ( S S z , n + 1 d 2 r S S z , n d 2 r ) ,

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