Abstract

We demonstrate red-emitting silicon quantum dot (SiQD) phosphors as a low-cost and environment-friendly alternative to rare-earth element phosphors or CdSe quantum dots. After surface passivation, the SiQD-phosphors achieve high photoluminescence quantum yield = 51% with 365-nm excitation. The phosphors also have a peak photoluminescence wavelength at 630 nm and a full-width-at-half-maximum of 145 nm. The relatively broadband red emission is ideal for forming the basis of a warm white spectrum. With 365-nm or 405-nm LED pumping and the addition of green- and/or blue-emitting rare-earth element phosphors, warm white LEDs with color rendering index ~95 have been achieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  13. D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
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  22. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Tu, Q. Zhang, L. Y. Lin, and G. Cao, “Brightly photoluminescent phosphor materials based on silicon quantum dots with oxide shell passivation,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A69–A74 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as rare-earth alternatives,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

R. A. Cruz, V. Pilla, and T. Catunda, “Quantum yield excitation spectrum (UV-visible) of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots by thermal lens spectrometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 083504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-C. Tu, L. Tang, J. Huang, A. Voutsas, and L. Y. Lin, “Solution-processed photodetectors from colloidal silicon nano/micro particle composite,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21622–21627 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. Jurbergs, E. Rogojina, L. Mangolini, and U. Kortshagen, “Silicon nanocrystals with ensemble quantum yields exceeding 60%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, and H.-Y. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 193–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. M. Credo, M. D. Mason, and S. K. Buratto, “External quantum efficiency of single porous silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(14), 1978–1980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. L. Heinrich, C. L. Curtis, G. M. Credo, M. J. Sailor, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Luminescent colloidal silicon suspensions from porous silicon,” Science 255(5040), 66–68 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adamec, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ariyawong, K.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Averboukh, B.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bakardjieva, S.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Batentschuk, M.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bocksrocker, T.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruns, M.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buratto, S. K.

G. M. Credo, M. D. Mason, and S. K. Buratto, “External quantum efficiency of single porous silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(14), 1978–1980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G.

Catunda, T.

R. A. Cruz, V. Pilla, and T. Catunda, “Quantum yield excitation spectrum (UV-visible) of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots by thermal lens spectrometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 083504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, K. W.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-S.

H.-S. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, and H.-Y. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 193–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cibulka, O.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Credo, G. M.

G. M. Credo, M. D. Mason, and S. K. Buratto, “External quantum efficiency of single porous silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(14), 1978–1980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Heinrich, C. L. Curtis, G. M. Credo, M. J. Sailor, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Luminescent colloidal silicon suspensions from porous silicon,” Science 255(5040), 66–68 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz, R. A.

R. A. Cruz, V. Pilla, and T. Catunda, “Quantum yield excitation spectrum (UV-visible) of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots by thermal lens spectrometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 083504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A. G.

A. G. Cullis and L. T. Canham, “Visible light emission due to quantum size effects in highly porous crystalline silicon,” Nature 353(6342), 335–338 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, C. L.

J. L. Heinrich, C. L. Curtis, G. M. Credo, M. J. Sailor, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Luminescent colloidal silicon suspensions from porous silicon,” Science 255(5040), 66–68 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, W. D. A. M.

D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as rare-earth alternatives,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dohnalová, K.

D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Englich, J.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdem, T.

T. Erdem and H. V. Demir, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as rare-earth alternatives,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 126 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fucíková, A.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gindele, F.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Godefroo, S.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grivickas, V.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gulbinas, K.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayne, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, J. L.

J. L. Heinrich, C. L. Curtis, G. M. Credo, M. J. Sailor, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Luminescent colloidal silicon suspensions from porous silicon,” Science 255(5040), 66–68 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hens, P.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hof, M.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H.-Y.

H.-S. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, and H.-Y. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 193–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-K.

H.-S. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, and H.-Y. Hong, “InGaN–CdSe–ZnSe quantum dots white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 193–195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

Huber, R.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Humpolícková, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
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Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
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Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jivanescu, M.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
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Jokubavicius, V.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
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Jurbergs, D.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
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D. Jurbergs, E. Rogojina, L. Mangolini, and U. Kortshagen, “Silicon nanocrystals with ensemble quantum yields exceeding 60%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaisr, M.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyama, S.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

J. L. Heinrich, C. L. Curtis, G. M. Credo, M. J. Sailor, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Luminescent colloidal silicon suspensions from porous silicon,” Science 255(5040), 66–68 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kortshagen, U.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jurbergs, E. Rogojina, L. Mangolini, and U. Kortshagen, “Silicon nanocrystals with ensemble quantum yields exceeding 60%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kübel, C.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucur, E.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kusová, K.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, W. C.

K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebedev, O. I.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liljedahl, R.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. Y.

Linnarsson, M. K.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. W.

K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Z. C.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maier-Flaig, F.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangolini, L.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jurbergs, E. Rogojina, L. Mangolini, and U. Kortshagen, “Silicon nanocrystals with ensemble quantum yields exceeding 60%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M. D.

G. M. Credo, M. D. Mason, and S. K. Buratto, “External quantum efficiency of single porous silicon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(14), 1978–1980 (1999).
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Matejka, P.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meister, F.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, J.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nann, T.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
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Ou, H.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Y.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelant, I.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dohnalová, K. Kůsová, and I. Pelant, “Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of the initial oxidation stage of small silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 211903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pilla, V.

R. A. Cruz, V. Pilla, and T. Catunda, “Quantum yield excitation spectrum (UV-visible) of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots by thermal lens spectrometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(8), 083504 (2010).
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Powell, A. K.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, G. G.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rinck, J.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogojina, E.

D. Jurbergs, E. Rogojina, L. Mangolini, and U. Kortshagen, “Silicon nanocrystals with ensemble quantum yields exceeding 60%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 233116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

J. L. Heinrich, C. L. Curtis, G. M. Credo, M. J. Sailor, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Luminescent colloidal silicon suspensions from porous silicon,” Science 255(5040), 66–68 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

B. Averboukh, R. Huber, K. W. Cheah, Y. R. Shen, G. G. Qin, Z. C. Ma, and W. H. Zong, “Luminescence studies of a Si/SiO2 superlattice,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(7), 3564–3568 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spiecker, E.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stepánek, P.

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephan, M.

F. Maier-Flaig, J. Rinck, M. Stephan, T. Bocksrocker, M. Bruns, C. Kübel, A. K. Powell, G. A. Ozin, and U. Lemmer, “Multicolor silicon light-emitting diodes (SiLEDs),” Nano Lett. 13(2), 475–480 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stesmans, A.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J. W.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Swihart, M. T.

K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sykora, M.

M. Sykora, L. Mangolini, R. D. Schaller, U. Kortshagen, D. Jurbergs, and V. I. Klimov, “Size-dependent intrinsic radiative decay rates of silicon nanocrystals at large confinement energies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syväjärvi, M.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tang, L.

Timmerman, D.

D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, C.-C.

Vácha, F.

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

D. Timmerman, J. Valenta, K. Dohnalová, W. D. A. M. de Boer, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Step-like enhancement of luminescence quantum yield of silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(11), 710–713 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valenta, A. Fučíková, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíčková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, “Light-emission performance of silicon nanocrystals deduced from single quantum dot spectroscopy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(18), 2666–2672 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Tendeloo, G.

S. Godefroo, M. Hayne, M. Jivanescu, A. Stesmans, M. Zacharias, O. I. Lebedev, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Classification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(3), 174–178 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voutsas, A.

Wellmann, P.

M. Syväjärvi, J. Müller, J. W. Sun, V. Grivickas, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, P. Hens, M. Kaisr, K. Ariyawong, K. Gulbinas, P. Hens, R. Liljedahl, M. K. Linnarsson, S. Kamiyama, P. Wellmann, E. Spiecker, and H. Ou, “Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs,” Phys. Scr. T 148, 014002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

J. Ziegler, S. Xu, E. Kucur, F. Meister, M. Batentschuk, F. Gindele, and T. Nann, “Silica-coated InP/ZnS nanocrystals as converter material in white LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4068–4073 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S.-G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, “White light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering based on organically capped CdSe quantum dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+,Li+ phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 20(14), 2696–2702 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, L.

K. T. Yong, W. C. Law, R. Hu, L. Ye, L. W. Liu, M. T. Swihart, and P. N. Prasad, “Nanotoxicity assessment of quantum dots: from cellular to primate studies,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(3), 1236–1250 (2013).
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K. Kůsová, O. Cibulka, K. Dohnalová, I. Pelant, J. Valenta, A. Fucíková, K. Zídek, J. Lang, J. Englich, P. Matějka, P. Stepánek, and S. Bakardjieva, “Brightly luminescent organically capped silicon nanocrystals fabricated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure,” ACS Nano 4(8), 4495–4504 (2010).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) SEM images of the SiQD phosphors. (c) TEM image of the SiQD-phosphors. (d) Photographs of the SiQD-phosphor suspension in toluene under room light (left) and 365-nm near-UV excitation (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) PL spectra of the SiQD-phosphor suspension in toluene, with 320-nm (orange curve), 365-nm (red curve), 400-nm (green curve) and 440-nm (blue curve) excitations, respectively. (b) PLQY versus excitation photon energy. (c) Excitation (red solid line) and absorbance (blue dotted line) spectra. (d) FTIR-ATR spectra of the dried SiQD-phosphor powders at different stages of the synthesis, as-harvested (blue dotted line), after HNO3 etching (green dotted line) and after alkyl silane treatment (red solid line). ν and δ mean stretching mode and deformation mode, respectively. (e) Electronic band structure of the SiQD-phosphors. The green, red, blue rectangles represent the energy band gaps of the silicon core, SiQD and silicon oxide, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) Electroluminescence spectra (area-normalized) and photographs of Sample 1 and Sample 2, respectively. The spectrum of an ideal incandescent source (gray dashed line) is superimposed for comparison. (c) Specifications of the lighting quality produced by Sample 1, Sample 2 and the ideal incandescent source. Duv specifies the deviation of a light from a blackbody radiator reference. R9 reports the rendering score of a light on a saturated red reference. LER (lm Wopt−1) represents the spectral efficiency. CQS Qa is a metric introduced by researchers at the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) as an update from the CRI standard.

Metrics