Abstract

In the present work, different varied line space (VLS) and reflection zone plate (RZP) gratings are analyzed for their suitability in low-signal femtosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy. The need for high efficiency suggests a straightened focal line whose sharpness and residual curvature will determine the quality. One- and two-dimensional VLS structures feature an attractive trade-off between a sufficient optical performance and a strongly relaxed fabrication, due to moderate line densities which are easily accessible by e-beam lithography. Based on fanned-out RZP arrays, their continuous limit version is identified to generate an almost perfect focal line however, with an aberration level three orders of magnitude better than for the VLS gratings and well below the diffraction limit over large acceptance angles.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Erko, A. Firsov, F. Senf, “Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Y. Kiyan, E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22, 10747–10760 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
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  12. H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. Erko, A. Firsov, F. Senf, “Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, Y. Kagoshima, “New X-ray nanofocusing devices based on total-reflection zone plates,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390D (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. A. Schelokov, Y. A. Basov, “Zone plates for X-ray optics at grazing incidence angles,” J. Phys. D 29, 129–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Al-Obaidi, R.

Alonso-Mori, R.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, E. F.

Basov, Y. A.

I. A. Schelokov, Y. A. Basov, “Zone plates for X-ray optics at grazing incidence angles,” J. Phys. D 29, 129–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, U.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, M. J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Borgwardt, M.

Borovik, A.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, M.

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brzhezinskaya, M.

J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Y. Kiyan, E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22, 10747–10760 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, F. M. F.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Engel, N.

Erko, A.

J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Y. Kiyan, E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22, 10747–10760 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Erko, A. Firsov, F. Senf, “Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A.

J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Y. Kiyan, E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22, 10747–10760 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Erko, A. Firsov, F. Senf, “Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Föhlisch, A.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Freund, W.

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grünert, J.

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gul, S.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hambach, D.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, G.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, T.

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hattne, J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holldack, K.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kachel, T.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kagoshima, Y.

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, Y. Kagoshima, “New X-ray nanofocusing devices based on total-reflection zone plates,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390D (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kern, J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, I. Y.

Kondakov, A. S.

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koroidov, S.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kothe, A.

Koyama, T.

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kubicek, K.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kunnus, K.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laksmono, H.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lassalle-Kaiser, B.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Löchel, H.

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Messinger, J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Metje, J.

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minitti, M. P.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mitzner, R.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, S.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moguilevski, A.

Molodtsov, S.

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordlund, D.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, C.

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pfauntsch, S. J.

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pontius, N.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Quevedo, W.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Rehanek, J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Roshchupkin, D. V.

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rymell, L.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sauter, N. K.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schäfers, F.

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schelokov, I. A.

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Schelokov, Y. A. Basov, “Zone plates for X-ray optics at grazing incidence angles,” J. Phys. D 29, 129–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W. F.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.-S.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schreck, S.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Senf, F.

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Erko, A. Firsov, F. Senf, “Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sierra, R. G.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, M.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, C.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Svintsov, A.

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, Y. Kagoshima, “New X-ray nanofocusing devices based on total-reflection zone plates,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390D (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Techert, S.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tolksdorf, D.

Tran, R.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, T.

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, Y. Kagoshima, “New X-ray nanofocusing devices based on total-reflection zone plates,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390D (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsusaka, Y.

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tucoulou, R.

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weniger, C.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wernet, P.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, M.

Yachandra, V. K.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A. E.

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yano, J.

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, T. Hashimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Tsusaka, Y. Kagoshima, “Sub-15 nm hard X-ray focusing with a new total-reflection zone plate,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 076702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft X-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

R. Mitzner, J. Rehanek, J. Kern, S. Gul, J. Hattne, T. Taguchi, R. Alonso-Mori, R. Tran, C. Weniger, H. Schröder, W. Quevedo, H. Laksmono, R. G. Sierra, G. Han, B. Lassalle-Kaiser, S. Koroidov, K. Kubicek, S. Schreck, K. Kunnus, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, M. P. Minitti, J. J. Turner, S. Moeller, N. K. Sauter, M. J. Bogan, D. Nordlund, W. F. Schlotter, J. Messinger, A. Borovik, S. Techert, F. M. F. de Groot, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, U. Bergmann, V. K. Yachandra, P. Wernet, J. Yano, “L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of dilute systems relevant to metalloproteins using an X-ray free electron laser,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3641–3647 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Series (3)

A. Firsov, A. Erko, F. Senf, J. Rehanek, M. Brzhezinskaya, R. Mitzner, P. Wernet, A. Föhlisch, “Novel wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 152013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Rehanek, F. Schäfers, H. Löchel, A. Firsov, J. Grünert, W. Freund, C. Ozkan, S. Molodtsov, A. Erko, “A case study of novel X-ray optics for FEL sources,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 052013 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, A. Erko, “Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation,” J. Phys. Conf. Series 425, 162004 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

I. A. Schelokov, Y. A. Basov, “Zone plates for X-ray optics at grazing incidence angles,” J. Phys. D 29, 129–132 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J.-S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Rad. 20, 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

I. A. Schelokov, D. V. Roshchupkin, A. S. Kondakov, A. E. Yakshin, R. Tucoulou, M. Brunel, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by grazing incidence phase Fresnel zone plates in Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme,” Opt. Commun. 155, 115–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. Erko, A. Firsov, A. Svintsov, “Nanometer focusing of X-rays with modified reflection zone plates,” Opt. Commun. 245, 249–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Basov, D. V. Roshchupkin, I. A. Schelokov, A. E. Yakshin, “Two-dimensional X-ray focusing by a phase Fresnel zone plate at grazing incidence,” Opt. Commun. 114, 9–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Takano, T. Tsuji, Y. Kagoshima, “New X-ray nanofocusing devices based on total-reflection zone plates,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochimica Acta B (1)

A. Erko, A. Firsov, F. Senf, “Novel parallel vacuum ultra-violet/X-ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimica Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Optica Software, 613 W Delaware Ave, Urbana IL 61801, USA, http://www.opticasoftware.com (2014).

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic model for L-edge spectroscopy of transition metals like Mn in dilute samples (blue bubble) using absorption-induced 2p → 3d fluorescence (red) from core-hole recombinations of electrons (e). Low-energy Oxygen (O) Kα radiation is emitted from the protein/water environment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental scheme for wide angle separation fluorescence spectroscopy to discriminate the Mn L2,3 photons in the focused (−1)st diffraction order (red) from the nearby and predominant O Kα line (green). The undesired (+1)st Mn L2,3 order (light red) and the common specular reflection (gray) are usually shielded. Grating and detector size are described by L and wdet, respectively. The accepted beam divergence is given by Δϑs,m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plane grating diffraction within boundaries x1,2, such that L = |x2x1|. The yellow stars indicate source R⃗1 and observation point P 2 ( m ) ( r ) in the mth order, the conjugated image (white star) of an on-axis point source is defined by R⃗2 via the grazing angle θ, such that the detector plane is located at x = R2 cosθ. Wave vectors k⃗i (r⃗) for diffraction from a position r⃗ are drawn in red and R′i (blue lines) denote the arm lengths, given by Eq. (6).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

VLS gratings for the data from Tab. 1 in one (left) and two (right) dimensions. The 2D version is optimized for balanced focal plane intensity distribution (see text). The trapezoidal shape coincides with the footprint of the wavefront on the diffractive surface, with its power median 〈xphot. For clarity, only each 1000th line is drawn in white color.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fan ray scan of the 1D and 2D VLSG from Fig. 4. The function zx(y), as encoded by colors, describes the focal line shape of the (−1)st order in the observation plane x = R2 cosθ (see Fig. 3), but now in parametric dependence on the longitudinal position x2xx1 where the fan ray hits the grating plane. White lines refer to fixed values of x (δα).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correspondence between the curvatures of focal line (1D) and groove structure (2D) depending on dl(x). All variables refer to the geometrical center x0. Black dots represent data for selected fan ray intersections x2 < x < x1, fitted by a one-term power law (red line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Focal intensity distributions of the 1D and balanced 2D VLSG from Fig. 4, as they originate from a superposition of all fan ray footprints for x2xx1 as shown in Fig. 5. The intensity is scaled to the maximum on the optical axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion properties of the 1D VLSG. The density histograms contain the intensity distribution for the design energy Ec (central “arch” with sharp focusing on the optical axis) and blurred regions for the lower and higher energy Ec ± ΔE/2 at the lower and upper end.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Stretching of an RZP. The inverse scaling factor η−1 for the lateral y-coordinate is increased from 5.0 up to the optimal value 35.7, providing a wing-shaped, balanced focal line similar to the 2D VLSG from Sect. 4. The shape of grooves is shown together with their color-encoded line density.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Vector field decomposition of a polynomial 2D VLSG and a stretched RZP whose focal plane intensity distributions coincide. Colored contours reflect lines of constant vector field components gx (r⃗) and gy (r⃗), symbolized by arrows. For simplicity, only the central region around x0 is shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dispersion properties of the stretched RZP. Each density histogram is composed of the intensity distribution for the focused design energy Ec (wing-shaped, nearly symmetric central line) as well as of photons with a lower and higher energy Ec ± ΔE/2, respectively.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Straight focal line of the fabricated stretched RZP, color-coded from black (background and read-out noise) to yellow/white (peak signal level). Due to 8-bit compression, 256 × 23 merged pixel of 108μm in size are displayed.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Flatness test for the focal line of the stretched RZP from Fig. 12. Gaussian-fitted intensity peaks for each pixel column in z-direction (black dots) are fitted by a squared power law with respect to the y-coordinate (red solid line).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Grating contours (white solid lines) and density sketch of an RZP array with 21 channels (left) and its continuous limit for #(chan.) → ∞ (right), based on the data from Tab. 1. Note the different scales of the color-encoded line density dl for both versions.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Focal intensity distributions of the discrete (left) and continuous (right) RZP array from Fig. 14. The z-scale is measured as the deviation from the nominal focal height 〈R⃗2|e⃗z〉. For better graphical presentation, in the discrete case the focal spots – of perfect sharpness in the ray tracing or geometrical optics regime – are enlarged to 10 nm.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Multi-focus of the fabricated RZPA, recorded within 60 sec for an energy of 640eV and ∅source ≈ (25 × 150) μm2. The image displays 256 × 23 merged pixel due to 8-bit compression, each of them effectively (108 × 108) μm2 in size.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Experimental RZPA statistics, referring to Fig. 16. The relative deviation of the background-corrected energy per RZPA channel from their mean value (red / blue colored bars) is shown. In the case of channel #1, the bar length is cut for better presentation.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Comparison between the discrete RZP array (black contours) and its continuous limit with an infinite number of channels. The local direction n ^ j ( r ) of each RZP is indicated in blue. The new grating vector direction g⃗ (r⃗) for #(ch.) → ∞ is drawn in red color, together with the slightly concave bent resulting grating lines.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Dispersion properties of the continuous RZP array. Besides the straight, diffraction-limited focus line at Δz = 0 for Ec, the density histograms show uniform photon distributions for adjacent energies Ec ± ΔE/2 above (+) and below (−) the nominal focal line.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Modeled diffraction patterns on the focal line of an RZP array with N channels in color-coded logarithmic presentation. Local coordinates (Δy, Δz) are given in units of the corresponding spot size from Eq. (31). Adjacent spots are separated by Δyspot, also nearly proportional to N−1. Only three spots are shown for simplicity. See text for details.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Detailed view of the proposed RZP array operating near the diffraction limit with about 1.5×103 channels for Ec = 640 eV. Grating bars and grooves are drawn in black and white, respectively, for 3 adjacent channels in each plot. Normals n ^ j ( r ) refer to Fig. 18.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Focal line width of four grating types discussed in this work, measured as the FWHM equivalent of the statistical standard error σz(y) in dispersion direction. The blurring for each type increases nearly with the 2nd power of the lateral detector position y.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Universal optical parameters for all grating versions considered in this work

Tables Icon

Table 2 Global focal line quality comparison between grating types

Equations (33)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( r ) = x , y V ( r ) with V ( r ) λ 1 Δ s opt .
g ( r ) = d l ( r ) 1 + [ y x ] 2 ( 1 y x )
V ( r ) = g ( r ) d r + const . × g ( r ) 0 .
k ( 2 ) ( r ) k ( 1 ) ( r ) = 2 π m g ( r ) with m ε ,
k ( i ) ( r ) = 2 π λ 1 | R i r | 1 ( R i r ) .
R i = | R i x 0 | with x o = x 0 ( 1 , 0 , 0 ) t .
x 2 + 2 R 1 x cos θ + R 1 2 = R 1 sin θ sin α ( x ) and x 2 2 R 2 x cos θ + R 2 2 = R 2 sin θ sin β ( x ) .
g ( r ) = d l ( x ) e x with d l 1 ( x ) [ cos α ( x ) cos β ( x ) ] = m λ ,
g ( r ) = k = 0 𝒪 k ( a k x k e x + b k y k e y ) , such that k = 0 𝒪 k a k x k = d l ( x ) .
y 2 z x ( y = 0 ) [ d l ( x ) ] γ 1 with γ 1 1.15 ,
y 2 x n ( y = 0 ) [ d l ( x ) ] γ 2 with γ 2 1.00 .
Δ ϑ s ( max ) Δ E for E = E c Δ E / 2 .
V ( r ) = λ 1 i = 1 2 [ ± ( i ) ( r ) R i ] ,
± ( i ) ( r ) y 2 + ( x ± R i cos θ ) 2 + ( R i sin θ ) 2 .
g ( r ) = λ 1 i = 1 2 [ ± ( i ) ( r ) ] 1 s ± ( i ) ( r ) .
x x and y η y with 0 η <
z ( y ) = c 0 + c 1 y 2 with c 1 1.1 × 10 5 mm 1 .
V j ( r ) = λ 1 i = 1 2 [ ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) R i j ] .
^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) 𝒢 ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) + [ R i sin θ ] 2 ,
𝒢 ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) [ y ^ j ( r ) ] 2 + [ x ^ j ( r ) ± R i j cos θ j ] 2 .
ζ j = ζ max N 1 [ 2 j ( N + 1 ) ] with ζ 1 = ζ max and ζ N = + ζ max .
( x ^ j ( r ) y ^ j ( r ) ) = M j [ r ( x j y j ) ] .
x j = 0 and y j = R 1 j cos θ j sin ζ j .
M j ( + cos ζ j + sin ζ j sin ζ j + cos ζ j ) .
g ^ j ( r ) = λ 1 i = 1 2 [ ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) ] 1 s ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) ,
s ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) = y ^ j ( r ) x , y y ^ j ( r ) + ^ ± , j ( i ) ( r ) x , y x ^ j ( r ) ,
s opt ( 1 ) = 𝒦 ( r ) + ( r ) and s opt ( 0 ) = ( R 1 + R 2 ) 1 + ( y cos θ / x ˜ + ( 1 ) ) 2 .
g ( r ) = λ 1 [ u ( r ) 𝒦 ( r ) + ( y / x ˜ + ( 1 ) 1 ) 𝒢 ( r ) + v ( r ) ( r ) ] .
u ( r ) = ( x ˜ + ( 1 ) y ) and v ( r ) = ( x ˜ ( 2 ) + y 2 𝒬 x ˜ ( 1 𝒬 x ˜ ) / x ˜ + ( 1 ) y 𝒬 x ˜ 2 ) .
𝒢 ( r ) = y ( R 1 + R 2 ) cos 2 θ 1 + ( y cos θ / x ˜ + ( 1 ) ) 2 ( x ˜ + ( 1 ) ) 2 .
PSF ( y ) λ 2 NA y M and PSF ( z ) λ 2 NA z M .
N max 2 ζ max ( R 1 + R 2 M h c cos θ ) 1 / 2 E
N max ( * ) 1 𝒞 M N max with 𝒞 M = 1 + 𝒬 2 4

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