Abstract

We present a simple broadband gradient-index antireflective coating, fabricated directly on a single mode telecom fiber tip. A regular array of hemi-ellipsoidal protrusions significantly reduce the Fresnel reflection from the glass-air interface. The parameters of the structure were optimized with numerical simulation for the best performance at and around 1550 nm and the coating was fabricated with Direct Laser Writing. The measured reflectance decreased by a factor of 30 at 1550 nm and was below 0.28% for the 100 nm spectral band around the central wavelength. Compared to quarter wavelength antireflective coatings the demonstrated approach offers significantly reduced technological challenges, in particular processing of a single optical material with low sensitivity to imperfections in the fabrication process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

U. B. Schallenberg, “Nanostructures versus thin films in the design of antireflection coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681N (2011).

2010 (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

H. L. Chen, S. Y. Chuang, C. H. Lin, Y. H. Lin, “Using colloidal lithography to fabricate and optimize sub-wavelength pyramidal and honeycomb structures in solar cells,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14793–14803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Poitras, P. Ma, H. Vakil, M. Acree, “Toward perfect antireflection coatings: Numerical investigation,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3075–3083 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, U. Heim, “Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 83(1–3), 130–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1983 (1)

1880 (1)

J. S. Rayleigh, “On reflection of vibrations at the confines of two media between which the transition is gradual,” Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 11, 51–56 (1880).

Abbott, S.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Acet, M.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acree, M.

Ahn, C. H.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

H. Becker, U. Heim, “Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 83(1–3), 130–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carl, A.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. Y.

David, C.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Desta, Y.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Gabriel, M.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gobrecht, J.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Hadobás, K.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Heim, U.

H. Becker, U. Heim, “Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 83(1–3), 130–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heyderman, L. J.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, G.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

Kim, J. K.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Kim, K.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, S.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koppel, S.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-B.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Lin, Y. H.

Liu, C.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Ma, P.

Manohara, H.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okochi, M.

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

Pommet, D. A.

Rayleigh, J. S.

J. S. Rayleigh, “On reflection of vibrations at the confines of two media between which the transition is gradual,” Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 11, 51–56 (1880).

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Scandella, L.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schallenberg, U. B.

U. B. Schallenberg, “Nanostructures versus thin films in the design of antireflection coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681N (2011).

Schift, H.

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F. S.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schulz, U.

Shields, P. A.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Southwell, W. H.

Sun, C.-H.

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vakil, H.

Varga, M. G.

Wang, W. N.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wassermann, E. F.

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C.-H. Sun, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

H. Schift, C. David, M. Gabriel, J. Gobrecht, L. J. Heyderman, W. Kaiser, S. Koppel, L. Scandella, “Nanoreplication in polymers using hot embossing and injection molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 53(1–4), 171–174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

K. Kim, S. Park, J.-B. Lee, H. Manohara, Y. Desta, M. Murphy, C. H. Ahn, “Rapid replication of polymeric and metallic high aspect ratio microstructures using PDMS and LIGA technology,” Microsyst. Technol. 9(1–2), 5–10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

K. Hadobás, S. Kirsch, A. Carl, M. Acet, E. F. Wassermann, “Reflection properties of nanostructure-arrayed silicon surfaces,” Nanotechnology 11(3), 161–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. S. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (1)

J. S. Rayleigh, “On reflection of vibrations at the confines of two media between which the transition is gradual,” Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 11, 51–56 (1880).

Proc. SPIE (1)

U. B. Schallenberg, “Nanostructures versus thin films in the design of antireflection coatings,” Proc. SPIE 8168, 81681N (2011).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

H. Becker, U. Heim, “Hot embossing as a method for the fabrication of polymer high aspect ratio structures,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 83(1–3), 130–135 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2001), Chap. 15.

M. S. Rill, Three-Dimensional Photonic Metamaterials by Direct Laser Writing and Advanced Metallization Techniques (Ph.D. Thesis, Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics, 2010), Chap. 3, http://digbib.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/1000018614 .

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