Abstract

We show numerically that both coherent perfect absorption and transparency can be realized in a monolayer graphene. The graphene film, doped and patterned with a periodical array of holes, can support plasmonic resonances in the Mid-infrared range. Under the illumination of two counter-propagating coherent optical beams, resonant optical absorption may be tuned continuously from 99.93% to less than 0.01% by controlling their relative phase which gives a modulation contrast of 40 dB (about 30 dB for transmission). The phenomenon provides a versatile platform for manipulating the interaction between light and graphene and may serve applications in optical modulators, transducers, sensors and coherent detectors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J.-Y. Ou, K. F. MacDonald, D. P. Tsai, N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhu, C. Guo, K. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Ye, X. Yuan, S. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).

J. Piper, S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1, 347353 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

N. Papasimakis, S. Thongrattanasiri, N. I. Zheludev, F. G. de Abajo, “The magnetic response of graphene split-ring metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e78 (2013); doi:
[CrossRef]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gutman, A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. Chong, C. M. de Sterke, “Coherent perfect absorption and reflection in slow-light waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4970–4973 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bruck, O. L. Muskens, “Plasmonic nanoantennas as integrated coherent perfect absorbers on soi waveguides for modulators and all-optical switches,” Opt. Express 21, 27652–27661 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (12)

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-T. Liu, N.-H. Liu, J. Li, X. J. Li, J.-H. Huang, “Enhanced absorption of graphene with one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 052104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, K. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 749–758 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon meta-material,” Opt. Express 20, 28017–28024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Ou, K. MacDonald, N. Zheludev, “Optical response of plasmonic relief meta-surfaces,” Journal of Optics 14, 114002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Dutta-Gupta, O. J. Martin, S. Dutta Gupta, G. Agarwal, “Controllable coherent perfect absorption in a composite film,” Opt. Express 20, 1330–1336 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng, K. Halterman, “Coherent perfect absorption in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 165103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 2246–2254 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e18 (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Comm. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Longhi, “Coherent perfect absorption in a homogeneously broadened two-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 055804 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Vakil, N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K. Mizuno, J. Ishii, H. Kishida, Y. Hayamizu, S. Yasuda, D. N. Futaba, M. Yumura, K. Hata, “A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 6044–6047 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide,” Jour. Appl. Phys. 104, 084314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8, 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Bliokh, Y. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, S. SavelŁv, F. Nori, “Colloquium: Unusual resonators: Plasmonics, metamaterials, and random media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 1201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. Mock, D. Smith, W. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Falkovsky, S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Falkovsky, A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. Jour. B 56, 281–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Ken, “Phase effect on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2294 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. Dubonos, I. Grigorieva, A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

Abdelsalam, M.

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adam, S.

F. Liu, Y. Chong, S. Adam, M. Polini, “Gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.2368 (2014).

Agarwal, G.

Ajayan, P. M.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8, 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alaee, R.

Andrews, A. M.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Comm. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Comm. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P.

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, K. Y.

K. Y. Bliokh, Y. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, S. SavelŁv, F. Nori, “Colloquium: Unusual resonators: Plasmonics, metamaterials, and random media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 1201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bliokh, Y. P.

K. Y. Bliokh, Y. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, S. SavelŁv, F. Nori, “Colloquium: Unusual resonators: Plasmonics, metamaterials, and random media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 1201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borisov, A.

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Comm. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruck, R.

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bur, J. A.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8, 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandra, B.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, Y.

N. Gutman, A. A. Sukhorukov, Y. Chong, C. M. de Sterke, “Coherent perfect absorption and reflection in slow-light waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4970–4973 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrenk, W.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

S. A. Mousavi, E. Plum, J. Shi, N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent control of optical activity and optical anisotropy of thin metamaterials,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.0414 (2013).

Smith, D.

N. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. Mock, D. Smith, W. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasser, G.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, Y.

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Teperik, T. V.

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

N. Papasimakis, S. Thongrattanasiri, N. I. Zheludev, F. G. de Abajo, “The magnetic response of graphene split-ring metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e78 (2013); doi:
[CrossRef]

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J.-Y. Ou, K. F. MacDonald, D. P. Tsai, N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, M. L.

X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J.-Y. Ou, K. F. MacDonald, D. P. Tsai, N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Tulevski, G.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urich, A.

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

A. Vakil, N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdes-Garcia, A.

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varlamov, A.

L. Falkovsky, A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. Jour. B 56, 281–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wan, W.

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, Y.

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.-P.

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8, 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1257–1264 (2013).
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A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
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K. Mizuno, J. Ishii, H. Kishida, Y. Hayamizu, S. Yasuda, D. N. Futaba, M. Yumura, K. Hata, “A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 6044–6047 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, W.

Z. Zhu, C. Guo, K. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Ye, X. Yuan, S. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, X.

Z. Zhu, C. Guo, K. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Ye, X. Yuan, S. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).

Yumura, M.

K. Mizuno, J. Ishii, H. Kishida, Y. Hayamizu, S. Yasuda, D. N. Futaba, M. Yumura, K. Hata, “A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 6044–6047 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Z. Zhu, C. Guo, K. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Ye, X. Yuan, S. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).

J. Zhang, J. Ou, K. MacDonald, N. Zheludev, “Optical response of plasmonic relief meta-surfaces,” Journal of Optics 14, 114002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e18 (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. Dubonos, I. Grigorieva, A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Zheludev, N.

J. Zhang, J. Ou, K. MacDonald, N. Zheludev, “Optical response of plasmonic relief meta-surfaces,” Journal of Optics 14, 114002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J.-Y. Ou, K. F. MacDonald, D. P. Tsai, N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, S. Thongrattanasiri, N. I. Zheludev, F. G. de Abajo, “The magnetic response of graphene split-ring metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e78 (2013); doi:
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e18 (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

S. A. Mousavi, E. Plum, J. Shi, N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent control of optical activity and optical anisotropy of thin metamaterials,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.0414 (2013).

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, C. Guo, K. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Ye, X. Yuan, S. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Fang, S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Schlather, Z. Liu, L. Ma, Y. Wang, P. M. Ajayan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, F. J. García de Abajo, “Gated tunability and hybridization of localized plasmons in nanostructured graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 2388–2395 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

J. Piper, S. Fan, “Total absorption in a graphene monolayer in the optical regime by critical coupling with a photonic crystal guided resonance,” ACS Photonics 1, 347353 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

Z. Zhu, C. Guo, K. Liu, J. Zhang, W. Ye, X. Yuan, S. Qin, “Electrically tunable polarizer based on anisotropic absorption of graphene ribbons,” Appl. Phys. A 114, 1017–1021 (2014).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Fang, M. L. Tseng, J.-Y. Ou, K. F. MacDonald, D. P. Tsai, N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast all-optical switching via coherent modulation of metamaterial absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 141102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 251104 (2010).
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J.-T. Liu, N.-H. Liu, J. Li, X. J. Li, J.-H. Huang, “Enhanced absorption of graphene with one-dimensional photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 052104 (2012).
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Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Ken, “Phase effect on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 2294 (2005).
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Elect. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Elect. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. Jour. B (1)

L. Falkovsky, A. Varlamov, “Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity,” Eur. Phys. Jour. B 56, 281–284 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jour. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Quasi-transverse electromagnetic modes supported by a graphene parallel-plate waveguide,” Jour. Appl. Phys. 104, 084314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Optics (1)

J. Zhang, J. Ou, K. MacDonald, N. Zheludev, “Optical response of plasmonic relief meta-surfaces,” Journal of Optics 14, 114002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Light: Sci. Appl. (2)

J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, N. I. Zheludev, “Controlling light-with-light without nonlinearity,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e18 (2012); doi:
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, S. Thongrattanasiri, N. I. Zheludev, F. G. de Abajo, “The magnetic response of graphene split-ring metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e78 (2013); doi:
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13, 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10, 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-P. Yang, L. Ci, J. A. Bur, S.-Y. Lin, P. M. Ajayan, “Experimental observation of an extremely dark material made by a low-density nanotube array,” Nano Lett. 8, 446–451 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Comm. (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat. Comm. 2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-m. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Grigorenko, M. Polini, K. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6, 749–758 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Teperik, F. G. De Abajo, A. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Longhi, “Coherent perfect absorption in a homogeneously broadened two-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 055804 (2011).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

S. Feng, K. Halterman, “Coherent perfect absorption in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 165103 (2012).
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L. Falkovsky, S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
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M. Jablan, H. Buljan, M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, F. J. G. de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Noh, Y. Chong, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Perfect coupling of light to surface plasmons by coherent absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 186805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. Mock, D. Smith, W. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

K. Mizuno, J. Ishii, H. Kishida, Y. Hayamizu, S. Yasuda, D. N. Futaba, M. Yumura, K. Hata, “A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 6044–6047 (2009).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

K. Y. Bliokh, Y. P. Bliokh, V. Freilikher, S. SavelŁv, F. Nori, “Colloquium: Unusual resonators: Plasmonics, metamaterials, and random media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 1201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

W. Wan, Y. Chong, L. Ge, H. Noh, A. D. Stone, H. Cao, “Time-reversed lasing and interferometric control of absorption,” Science 331, 889–892 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vakil, N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. Dubonos, I. Grigorieva, A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. A. Mousavi, E. Plum, J. Shi, N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent control of optical activity and optical anisotropy of thin metamaterials,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.0414 (2013).

F. Liu, Y. Chong, S. Adam, M. Polini, “Gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.2368 (2014).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of coherent absorption in a nanostructured graphene film. Two coherent optical beams impinge on the graphene film from opposite sides at normal incidence. Part of the energy may be absorbed while others will be scattered from both sides which can be controlled by changing the relative phase of the two beams. (b) A unit cell of the nanostructured graphene film with geometric parameters. The period is P = 400 nm and the size of hole is 220 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Incoherent and coherent absorption in the nanostructured graphene film. (a) Simulated reflection, transmission and absorption of the nanostructured graphene film under the illumination of only one beam at normal incidence (or when the two input beams are incoherent). (b) Normalized total scattering output intensities |S|2 under the illumination of two counter-propagating coherent beams with the same intensities. The solid blue line and dashed red line show for parity-even mode and parity-odd mode, respectively. The geometric parameters of the patterned graphene is show in Fig. 1(b). Equation (12) is used to describe the conductivity of graphene and the Fermi level of graphene is assumed to beEF = 0.6 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase modulation of coherent absorption. Two coherent beams with equal intensities impinge on the nanostructured graphene film from opposite sides. (a) At the resonance wavelength of 8.476 μm, the coherent absorption decreases from 99.93% to less than 0.01% as the relative phase changes from 0 to π. (b) At the off-resonance wavelength of 8.4 μm, the coherent absorption (blue solid curve) varies from about 41% to less than 0.01%. Other energy will be scattered from the two sides of graphene (dashed red curve and dashed green curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase modulation of coherent absorption in a nanostructured graphene film with asymmetric environments. The graphene is on a semi-infinite substrate with a refractive index of 1.5. Two coherent beams, with equal field amplitudes, are incident on the graphene at normal direction from opposite sides.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = r + ( 1 + r ) η , T = t + t η
r = n 1 n 2 n 1 + n 2 , t = 2 n 1 n 1 + n 2
A = 1 | R | 2 n 2 n 1 | T | 2 = 1 | r + ( 1 + r ) η | 2 n 2 n 1 | t + t η | 2 ]
η = 1 2
R = n 2 n 1 + n 2 , T = n 1 n 1 + n 2
s 1 = R 1 + T 2 α e i φ , s 2 = T 1 + R 2 α e i φ
R 1 = n 2 n 1 + n 2 , T 1 = n 1 n 1 + n 2
R 2 = n 1 n 1 + n 2 , T 2 = n 2 n 1 + n 2
A coh = 1 | s 1 | 2 + χ | s 2 | 2 1 + χ α 2
A coh = 1 χ 1 + χ 1 + α 2 2 α cos φ 1 + χ α 2
σ ω = 2 e 2 k B T π h ¯ 2 i ω + i τ 1 ln [ 2 cosh ( E F 2 k B T ) ] + e 2 4 h ¯ [ 1 2 + 1 π arctan ( h ¯ ω 2 E F 2 k B T ) i 2 π ln ( h ¯ ω + 2 E F ) 2 ( h ¯ ω 2 E F ) 2 + 4 ( k B T ) 2 ]
σ ω = e 2 E F π h ¯ 2 i ω + i τ 1

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