Abstract

A deformable mirror (DM) is a mirror whose surface can be deformed in order to correct for optical aberrations. If a DM is used in a feed-forward operation (i.e. without feed-back, also known as open-loop) it is, among other requirements, crucial that a set of actuator commands repeatedly results in the same surface shape. We have tested an ALPAO DM against this criterion, by repeatedly applying a set of actuator commands over hours and monitoring the DM shape with an interferometer. We found that if the surface shape was held to shape 𝒜 for several hours, then changed to a second shape, , the DM surface will drift from this new shape over the course of several hours. During this period the root-mean-square (RMS) of the deviation from shape can exceed 30% of the RMS of the difference between shapes 𝒜 and . This can correspond to a surface deviation with RMS of several hundred nanometers, and would severely impact the resulting performance of an AO system using such a DM in a feed-forward operation. We have developed a model to correct for the time-varying surface shape in software by continuously adapting the actuator commands over the stabilization period. Application of the stabilisation procedure allows the surface to remain stable to within 4 nm RMS after a period of 6 minutes. We also provide a suggestion on how to improve the repeatability of surface response to different sets of actuator commands, which can be affected by the surface drift.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Davies, M. Kasper, “Adaptive Optics for Astronomy,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 50, 305–351 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Inverse problems in astronomical adaptive optics,” Inverse Problems 25, 063001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Zepp, S. Gladysz, K. Stein, “Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement,” Adv. Opt. Techn. 2(5–6), 433–437 (2013).
  10. Private communication with Andreas Zepp, Fraunhofer IOSB, Germany.
  11. A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Private communication with Julien Charton, ALPAO SaS, France.

2013 (2)

A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Zepp, S. Gladysz, K. Stein, “Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement,” Adv. Opt. Techn. 2(5–6), 433–437 (2013).

2012 (4)

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Davies, M. Kasper, “Adaptive Optics for Astronomy,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 50, 305–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Inverse problems in astronomical adaptive optics,” Inverse Problems 25, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anaclerio, E.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andrighettoni, M.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, G.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Basden, A.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biasi, R.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blain, C.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brangier, M.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Briguglio, R.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, T.

A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
[CrossRef]

Butterley, T.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cavaco, J.

A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, F.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R.

R. Davies, M. Kasper, “Adaptive Optics for Astronomy,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 50, 305–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Desmarais, R.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dipper, N.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duhoux, P.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dunlop, C.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Inverse problems in astronomical adaptive optics,” Inverse Problems 25, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Evans, J. W.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ezzo, K. M.

A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gallieni, D.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gamroth, D.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron, E.

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Geng, D.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gladysz, S.

A. Zepp, S. Gladysz, K. Stein, “Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement,” Adv. Opt. Techn. 2(5–6), 433–437 (2013).

Gratadour, D.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guesalaga, A.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guzmán, D.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henry, D.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, Z.

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, K.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

R. Davies, M. Kasper, “Adaptive Optics for Astronomy,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 50, 305–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kellerer, A.

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lach, P.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lardière, O.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lazzarini, P.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Longmore, A.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Looker, N.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madec, P.-Y.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mair, C.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manetti, M.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mantegazza, M.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Markes, J.-P.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martin, Y.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morandini, M.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morris, T.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morzinski, K.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, R.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nash, R.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Perret, D.

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pescoller, D.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pham, L.

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reyes, M.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reza, L.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riccardi, A.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, L.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rousset, G.

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saunter, C.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Severson, S.

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevin, A.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharples, R.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stein, K.

A. Zepp, S. Gladysz, K. Stein, “Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement,” Adv. Opt. Techn. 2(5–6), 433–437 (2013).

Talbot, G.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vernet, E.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C. R.

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Inverse problems in astronomical adaptive optics,” Inverse Problems 25, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, A.

A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xompero, M.

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Younger, E.

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zepp, A.

A. Zepp, S. Gladysz, K. Stein, “Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement,” Adv. Opt. Techn. 2(5–6), 433–437 (2013).

Adv. Opt. Techn. (1)

A. Zepp, S. Gladysz, K. Stein, “Holographic wavefront sensor for fast defocus measurement,” Adv. Opt. Techn. 2(5–6), 433–437 (2013).

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys (1)

R. Davies, M. Kasper, “Adaptive Optics for Astronomy,” Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys 50, 305–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Astronomy & Astrophysics (1)

E. Gendron, F. Vidal, M. Brangier, T. Morris, Z. Hubert, A. Basden, G. Rousset, R. Myers, F. Chemla, A. Longmore, T. Butterley, N. Dipper, C. Dunlop, D. Geng, D. Gratadour, D. Henry, P. Laporte, N. Looker, D. Perret, A. Sevin, G. Talbot, E. Younger, “MOAO first on-sky demonstration with CANARY,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 529, L2 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Problems (1)

B. L. Ellerbroek, C. R. Vogel, “Inverse problems in astronomical adaptive optics,” Inverse Problems 25, 063001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (1)

J. W. Evans, B. Macintosh, L. Poyneer, K. Morzinski, S. Severson, D. Dillon, D. Gavel, L. Reza, “Demonstrating sub-nm closed loop MEMS flattening,” Optics Express 14(12), 5558–5570 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (5)

A. Kellerer, F. Vidal, E. Gendron, Z. Hubert, D. Perret, G. Rousset, “Deformable mirrors for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844765 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Wirth, J. Cavaco, T. Bruno, K. M. Ezzo, “Deformable mirror technologies at AOA Xinetics,” Proc. SPIE 8780, 87800M (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Lardière, R. Nash, J.-P. Markes, D. Andersen, C. Bradley, C. Blain, R. Desmarais, D. Gamroth, M. Ito, K. Jackson, P. Lach, L. Pham, “Final opto-mechanical design of Raven, a MOAO science demonstrator for Subaru,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 844753 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, G. Angerer, C. Mair, D. Pescoller, P. Lazzarini, E. Anaclerio, M. Mantegazza, D. Gallieni, E. Vernet, R. Arsenault, P.-Y. Madec, P. Duhoux, A. Riccardi, M. Xompero, R. Briguglio, M. Manetti, M. Morandini, “VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84472G (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Guzmán, A. Guesalaga, R. Myers, R. Sharples, T. Morris, A. Basden, C. Saunter, N. Dipper, L. Young, L. Rodríguez, M. Reyes, Y. Martin, “Deformable mirror controller for open-loop adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70153X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Private communication with Andreas Zepp, Fraunhofer IOSB, Germany.

Private communication with Julien Charton, ALPAO SaS, France.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The blue curve at the top shows the RMS of the DM surface after it had been flattened, monitored over several days. For the red curve the DM was replaced with a flat mirror to observe the impact of the measurement method. The temperature and the relative humidity are plotted underneath for both measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RMS of the difference between shapes �� and after changing the actuator commands from A to B. The measurement was performed 14 times to test repeatability. One can see a correlation between the RMS values and the temperature. Unlike in Fig. 1, the effect of relative humidity (RH, different marker styles) is not clear.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Linear response of the DM surface to actuator commands. See text for definition of w. The data points are fitted with a straight line. The fit parameter n agrees with 0 and the residuals shown underneath exhibit no structure. The temperatures when taking these data was between 21.8°C and 24.6°C. Measurements for w = ±1.0 were repeated several times.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The RMS of the DM surface shape changes by 80–90 nm in 6 hours, exhibiting a creep-like behavior of the DM surface. The three curves were obtained as described in the text, using the same actuator commands A and B to test the repeatability. Their shapes are rather similar but they demonstrate some dependency on the environmental conditions. The solid lines represent the results of a model fitted to the data points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase-map of the DM surface before flattening (a), immediately after flattening (b) and six hours after flattening (c). This demonstrates the key property of the surface creep: the final surface shape (c) is similar to the shape before flattening (a) but reversed in sign.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three iterations of correction factor xi(t) as defined in (3). The second iteration’s correction factors (red curve) were used for all the creep compensated results presented in this paper. The third iteration’s correction factors (black line) are plotted to show convergence. After t = 3 hours the red and the black curve start diverging due to different environmental conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stability of the DM surface with the creep compensation in place. The reference shape is taken at t = 6 min. All curves were obtained with the same commands A and B that were used to extract x(t) and they demonstrate excellent repeatability. The blue curve shows the result in the most varying environmental conditions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Some results of the creep compensation procedure. The change of shape by 2 hours after the flipping point is presented, as afterwards the change of shape is dominated by environmental conditions which were not controlled. For a few cases we performed the measurement without creep compensation for comparison - these results are given in parentheses.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

q ( t ) = RMS [ ( t ) 𝒜 ] RMS [ ( 0 ) 𝒜 ] 1 ,
B ( t ) = B ( 0 ) + x ( t ) [ A B ( 0 ) ] ,
x i + 1 ( t ) = x i ( t ) + q i ( t )

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