Abstract

An optical scattering layer, consisting of a Si3N4 nano-pillar array and a spin-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) planarization layer, was introduced to an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) substrate to increase the out-coupling efficiency. After plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of the Si3N4 layer, the nano-pillar array was created using nanoimprint lithography and reactive ion etching. As the Si3N4 pillar array has a refractive index of 2.0, photons generated in the organic layer are scattered by the Si3N4 structures and thus have a higher chance of being emitted from the device. The spin-coated HSQ planarization layer produces a flat substrate, which is essential for depositing a uniform organic material layer and assuring the electric conductivity of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. In this study, Si3N4 nano-structures with a height of 100 or 300 nm were used to enhance the out-coupling efficiency of the OLED devices. Although the electrical conductivity of the TCO layer deposited on the light scattering layer was slightly degraded, the OLED devices formed with the light scattering layer exhibited a higher luminous power at given electrical power. Consequently, the use of a planarized 300-nm-thick Si3N4 layer increased the external quantum efficiency of the OLED device by 50% at 10,000 cd/m2 compared to the reference OLED device fabricated on a flat glass substrate.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  4. A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin‐film light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
  15. M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).
  18. S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).
  24. J. H. Kim, L. -M. Do, J.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Lee, “Enhancement of outcoupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a planarized moth-eye structure on glass substrate,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3773–3775 (2013).
  25. Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

2013 (2)

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, L. -M. Do, J.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Lee, “Enhancement of outcoupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a planarized moth-eye structure on glass substrate,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3773–3775 (2013).

2012 (1)

J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

2006 (2)

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).

1994 (1)

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin‐film light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Bhat, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K.-J.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin‐film light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.-H.

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.-Y.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

Choi, C. S.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-G.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-H.

J. H. Kim, L. -M. Do, J.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Lee, “Enhancement of outcoupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a planarized moth-eye structure on glass substrate,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3773–3775 (2013).

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. C.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coccioli, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Do, L. -M.

Do, Y. R.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

Endo, A.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).

Forrest, S. R.

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073 (2000).

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin‐film light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073 (2000).

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, D. D. C. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamwi, S.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Hinze, P.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Ho, P. K. H.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073 (2000).

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, E.-J.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Ishihara, K.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. H.

J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S. M.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jhin, J.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Jiang, H. X.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).

Johannes, H.-H.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Kang, J.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effects in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-Y.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-J.

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J.-B.

J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

J.-S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, “Electroluminescence emission pattern of organic light-emitting diodes: Implications for device efficiency calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073 (2000).

Kim, K. H.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

Koh, T.-W.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.-S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

J. H. Kim, L. -M. Do, J.-H. Choi, J. Park, H. Lee, “Enhancement of outcoupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using a planarized moth-eye structure on glass substrate,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3773–3775 (2013).

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J.-H. Lee, S. Lee, J.-B. Kim, J. H. Jang, J.-J. Kim, “A high performance transparent inverted organic light emitting diode with 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylenehexacarbonitrile as an organic buffer layer,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(30), 15262–15266 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Lee, S.-M.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, M. S.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Machida, Y.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Möller, S.

S. Möller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nowy, S.

S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, W. Brütting, “Simulation based optimization of light-outcoupling in organic light-emitting diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7415, 74151C (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

K.-J. Byeon, E.-J. Hong, H. Park, J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Lee, J. Jhin, J. H. Baek, H. Lee, “Full wafer scale nanoimprint lithography for GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(7), 2241–2246 (2009).

Park, H.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Qin, Z. X.

Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinke, N. A.

S. Nowy, B. C. Krummacher, J. Frischeisen, N. A. Reinke, W. Brütting, “Light extraction and optical loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of the emitter quantum efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 123109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin‐film light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmale, S.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin‐film light‐emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J.

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173502 (2006).

Suzaki, G.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, Y. Machida, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, “Enhancement of normally directed light outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using nanoimprinted low-refractive-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 083307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).

Vrijen, R.

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

J. Meyer, T. Winkler, S. Hamwi, S. Schmale, H.-H. Johannes, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, “Transparent inverted organic light-emitting diodes with a tungsten oxide buffer layer,” Adv. Mater. 20, 3839–3843 (2008).

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, T.

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Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
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Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
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M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, D.

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
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Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Z. S. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Xu, K. Xu, Z. J. Yang, Z. X. Qin, T. J. Yu, D. P. Yu, “Effects of symmetry of GaN-based two-dimensional photonic crystal with quasicrystal lattices on enhancement of surface light extraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(17), 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: a nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. Boroditsky, T. F. Krauss, R. Coccioli, R. Vrijen, R. Bhat, E. Yablonovitch, “Light extraction from optically pumped light-emitting diode by thin-slab photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1036–1038 (1999).
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Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

H.-H. Cho, B. Park, H.-J. Kim, J. Shim, S. Jeon, J.- Jeong, J.-J. Kim, “Planarization of nanopatterned substrates using solution process to enhance outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(4), e139–e142 (2010).
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A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, D. Yokoyama, A. Endo, C. Adachi, W. Brütting, “Increased light outcoupling efficiency in dye-doped small molecule organic light-emitting diodes with horizontally oriented emitters,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 809–817 (2011).
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Thin Solid Films (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(i) Schematic of the fabrication of the Si3N4 patterned glass using UV nanoimprint lithography

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross sectional SEM micrographs (a) 100 nm Si3N4 pattern, (b) 300 nm Si3N4 pattern, (c) 100 nm Si3N4 pattern planarized with HSQ layer, (d) 300 nm Si3N4 pattern planarized with HSQ layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of (a) 100 nm Si3N4 pattern, (b) 300 nm Si3N4 pattern, (c) 100 nm Si3N4 pattern planarized with HSQ layer, (d) 300 nm Si3N4 pattern planarized with HSQ layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance measurements of the bare glass, 100 nm and 300 nm Si3N4 pillar patterned glass and planarized Si3N4 pillar patterned glasses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics and (b) Electroluminescence spectra of OLED devices, fabricated on bare glass and glass substrates, patterned with 100 nm and 300 nm Si3N4 and planarized by HSQ layer, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Current efficiency versus luminance and (b) Quantum efficiency Luminance for OLED devices, fabricated on bare glass and glass substrates, patterned with 100 nm and 300 nm Si3N4 and planarized by HSQ layer, respectively.

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