Abstract

We demonstrate the first germanium-silicon C-band electro-absorption based waveguide modulator array and echelle-grating-based silicon wavelength multiplexer integrated with a digital CMOS driver circuit. A 9-channel, 10Gbps SiGe electro-absorption wavelength-multiplexed modulator array consumed a power of 5.8mW per channel while being modulated at 10.25Gbps by 40nm CMOS drivers delivering peak-to-peak voltage swings of 2V, achieving a modulation energy-efficiency of ~570fJ/bit including drivers. Performance up to 25Gbps on a single-channel SiGe modulator and CMOS driver is also reported.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Asghari, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M. S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J. R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10Gbps, 5.3mW optical transceiver circuits in 40nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symp. VLSI Circuits (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Honolulu, HI, 2011), pp. 290–291.
  11. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

2008 (1)

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aplin, G. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asghari, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bijlani, B.

Buckwalter, J. F.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chaisakul, P.

Cheng, J.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

Coudevylle, J. R.

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

Edmond, S.

Feng, D.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

Fong, J.

Ford, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frigerio, J.

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

Jan, W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asghari, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

Le Roux, X.

Leibenguth, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

Luff, B. J.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Michel, J.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qing, F.

Raj, K.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rouifed, M. S.

Rozier, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Walker, J. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Woodward, T. K.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

Zheng, X.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Z.

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, Z. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Levy, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, “High-speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator on the SOI waveguide platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3401819 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A Monolithic 25-Gb/s Transceiver With Photonic Ring Modulators and Ge Detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI Process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Aplin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over submicron CMOS circuits: 375Mb/s transimpedancereceiver-transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Asghari, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (1)

F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, P. Amberg, M. Dayringer, J. Gainsley, H. Moghadam, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, E. Alon, and R. Ho, “10Gbps, 5.3mW optical transceiver circuits in 40nm CMOS,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symp. VLSI Circuits (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Honolulu, HI, 2011), pp. 290–291.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Insertion loss and extinction ratio vs wavelength and reverse-bias voltages (b) total equivalent modulator link power penalty showing that a bandwidth of 30nm obtained at approx. 9.5dB total penalty.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) GeSi modulator micrograph; (b) infrared micrograph of the modulator array after bonding to CMOS chip showing flip-chip pads and I/O waveguides; (c) Micrograph of the 3µm GeSi EA WDM modulator array (face-up) integrated with the 40nm TSMC driver chip (face-down); (d) Schematic of the driver chip integrated to the 3-micron silicon-on-insulator chip containing the Si/Ge FKE electro-absorption modulators array and the echelle multiplexer; (e) After fiber attach on packaged system test board.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Small-signal bandwidth of the GeSi FKE modulator (b) equivalent circuit based on S11 measurements and parameter fitting (c) Table of extracted values of junction, parasitic, and substrate capacitance and series resistance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of an unpackaged 10-channel modulator + multiplexer array chip normalized to fiber coupling loss; Worst-case isolation is >20dB on adjacent channels spaced at 100GHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Thermal profile of flip-chip assembly when powered ON. Powered modulator array can be seen as a vertical column on the left. (b) Scan of temperature across the assembly showing a temperature difference of ~10°C with peak temperature at EA modulator. (b) Eye diagram of a channel running at 12Gbps with on-chip PRBS data generator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Test of the integrated multi-wavelength transmitter showing simultaneous modulation on all nine channels at 10.25Gbps. Center wavelength was 1532nm and separation between channels was 1.6nm

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the 130nm CMOS SOI driver stage. Two push-pull driver stages control the swing across the p-n junction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Test of a single-channel version of the FK transmitter driven by a 130nm CMOS driver at 25Gbps/lane package: optical output eye at 25Gbps.

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