Abstract

An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 µm. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 µm on sapphire, which agree well with theoretical predictions. A theoretical analysis of a solid-state structure using Si3N4 superstrates and ultra-thin metal strips shows that propagation losses less than 0.3 dB/mm with a mode size of 9 µm are attainable. This work illustrates the potential of TiN as a realistic plasmonic material for practical solid-state, integrated nano-optic and hybrid photonic devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (5)

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, M. Ferrera, A. V. Lavrinenko, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, “Towards CMOS-compatible nanophotonics: ultra-compact modulators using alternative plasmonic materials,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27326–27337 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Krupin, H. Asiri, C. Wang, R. N. Tait, P. Berini, “Biosensing using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 21(1), 698–709 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shi, X. Zhang, Z. Han, U. Levy, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 31(21), 3361–3367 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits on horizontal Cu-SiO2-Si-SiO2-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. V. Naik, J. L. Schroeder, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, T. D. Sands, A. Boltasseva, “Titanium nitride as a plasmonic material for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 478–489 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophoton. 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, M. G. Nielsen, K. Leosson, H. Keshmiri, J. Gosciniak, O. Albrektsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4278–4280 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Chen, W. Lien, C. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Lin, C. Chou, S. Chang, C. Ho, “Excitation of surface plasma wave at TiN/air interface in the Kretschmann geometry,” J. Appl. Opt. 109(4), 043104 (2011).

2010 (3)

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Cortie, J. Giddings, A. Dowd, “Optical properties and plasmon resonances of titanium nitride nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 21(11), 115201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 484 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Falk, F. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. Snapp, A. Akimov, M. Jo, M. Lukin, H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, J. M. Lee, W. J. Lee, M. H. Lee, “Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(2), 697–702 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, S. Jacob, J. P. Noad, S. Chen, J. Ballato, D. W. Smith., “Long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides embedded in fluorinated polymer,” Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3892–3900 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

46R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. a Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nature Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Kim, S. Park, J. Ju, S. K. Park, M. Kim, M. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Berini, “Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13030–13042 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Heil, E. Langereis, F. Roozeboom, M. Sanden, W. Kessels, “Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(11), G956–G965 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 98(4), 043109 (2005).

2004 (2)

H. Cho, S. Member, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, “Power Comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22(9), 2021–2033 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

2003 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

A. Hibbins, J. Sambles, C. Lawrence, “Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of titanium nitride,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(10), 2051–2062 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. Steinmuller-Nethl, R. Kovacs, E. Gornik, P. Rodhammer, “Excitation of surface plasmons on titanium nitride films: determination of the dielectric function,” Thin Solid Films 237(1), 277–281 (1994).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. Kurtz, R. Hordon, “Chemical vapor deposition of titanium nitride at low temperatures,” Thin Solid Films 140(2), 277–290 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

Akimov, A.

A. Falk, F. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. Snapp, A. Akimov, M. Jo, M. Lukin, H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

Albrektsen, O.

Andersen, T. B.

Apostolopoulos, D.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asiri, H.

Atwater, H. A.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augendre, E.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avramopoulos, H.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babicheva, V. E.

Ballato, J.

Barnett, B.

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

Berini, P.

Berolo, E.

Blaize, S.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Block, B.

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

Boltasseva, A.

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, M. Ferrera, A. V. Lavrinenko, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, “Towards CMOS-compatible nanophotonics: ultra-compact modulators using alternative plasmonic materials,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27326–27337 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophoton. 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

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K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Markey, L.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011).
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P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 98(4), 043109 (2005).

Member, S.

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, S. Member, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, “Power Comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22(9), 2021–2033 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, E.

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

Naik, G. V.

Najar, A.

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
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A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nambiar, S.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, C. Leroux, B. de Salvo, R. E. de Lamaestre, “MNOS stack for reliable, low optical loss, Cu based CMOS plasmonic devices,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13612–13621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

Nielsen, M. G.

Nikolajsen, T.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Noad, J. P.

Oulton, R. F.

46R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. a Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nature Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).

Papaioannou, S.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

A. Falk, F. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. Snapp, A. Akimov, M. Jo, M. Lukin, H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
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S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, J. M. Lee, W. J. Lee, M. H. Lee, “Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(2), 697–702 (2009).
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J. Kim, S. Park, J. Ju, S. K. Park, M. Kim, M. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
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Park, S. K.

S. Park, J. J. Ju, J. T. Kim, M. S. Kim, S. K. Park, J. M. Lee, W. J. Lee, M. H. Lee, “Sub-dB/cm propagation loss in silver stripe waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(2), 697–702 (2009).
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J. Kim, S. Park, J. Ju, S. K. Park, M. Kim, M. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
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Pile, D. F. P.

46R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. a Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nature Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).

Pleros, N.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

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M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

Robertson, F.

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

Rodhammer, P.

D. Steinmuller-Nethl, R. Kovacs, E. Gornik, P. Rodhammer, “Excitation of surface plasmons on titanium nitride films: determination of the dielectric function,” Thin Solid Films 237(1), 277–281 (1994).
[Crossref]

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S. Heil, E. Langereis, F. Roozeboom, M. Sanden, W. Kessels, “Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(11), G956–G965 (2006).
[Crossref]

Salakhutdinov, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Salas-Montiel, R.

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sambles, J.

A. Hibbins, J. Sambles, C. Lawrence, “Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of titanium nitride,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(10), 2051–2062 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sámson, Z.

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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S. Heil, E. Langereis, F. Roozeboom, M. Sanden, W. Kessels, “Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(11), G956–G965 (2006).
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Sands, T. D.

Saraswat, K. C.

H. Cho, S. Member, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, “Power Comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22(9), 2021–2033 (2004).
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Schroeder, J. L.

Shalaev, V. M.

Sherwood, T.

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, K.

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).

Shi, X.

X. Shi, X. Zhang, Z. Han, U. Levy, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 31(21), 3361–3367 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. W.

Snapp, N.

A. Falk, F. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. Snapp, A. Akimov, M. Jo, M. Lukin, H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophoton. 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

46R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. a Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nature Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).

Stegeman, G. I.

Steinmuller-Nethl, D.

D. Steinmuller-Nethl, R. Kovacs, E. Gornik, P. Rodhammer, “Excitation of surface plasmons on titanium nitride films: determination of the dielectric function,” Thin Solid Films 237(1), 277–281 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M.

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tait, R. N.

Tekin, T.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Theogarajan, L.

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
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Tiwari, M.

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
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Valamehr, J. K.

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
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Volkov, V. S.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
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V. S. Volkov, Z. Han, M. G. Nielsen, K. Leosson, H. Keshmiri, J. Gosciniak, O. Albrektsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides operating at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4278–4280 (2011).
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A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
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Waldow, M.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
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Wallis, R. F.

Wang, C.

Wassel, H. M. G.

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
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Weeber, J.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
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M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

Yu, C.

A. Falk, F. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. Snapp, A. Akimov, M. Jo, M. Lukin, H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Shi, X. Zhang, Z. Han, U. Levy, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 31(21), 3361–3367 (2013).
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V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophoton. 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

46R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. a Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nature Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).

Zhao, W.

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).

Zheludev, N.

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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Zheng, J.

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

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S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Components for silicon plasmonic nanocircuits on horizontal Cu-SiO2-Si-SiO2-Cu nanoplasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5867–5881 (2012).
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S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
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G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, “Alternative Plasmonic Materials: Beyond Gold and Silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
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Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. (1)

H. M. G. Wassel, S. Member, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst. 2(2), 154–168 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, S. Member, P. Kapur, K. C. Saraswat, “Power Comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22(9), 2021–2033 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Shi, X. Zhang, Z. Han, U. Levy, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “CMOS-compatible long-range dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 31(21), 3361–3367 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Kim, S. Park, J. Ju, S. K. Park, M. Kim, M. Lee, “Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(18), 1374–1376 (2007).
[Crossref]

Intel Technol. J. (1)

M. Kobrinsky, B. Block, J. Zheng, B. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Robertson, S. List, I. Young, K. Cadien, “On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” Intel Technol. J. 8(2), 129–142 (2004).

J. Appl. Opt. (2)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, “Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 98(4), 043109 (2005).

N. Chen, W. Lien, C. Liu, Y. Huang, Y. Lin, C. Chou, S. Chang, C. Ho, “Excitation of surface plasma wave at TiN/air interface in the Kretschmann geometry,” J. Appl. Opt. 109(4), 043104 (2011).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. Heil, E. Langereis, F. Roozeboom, M. Sanden, W. Kessels, “Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(11), G956–G965 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Hibbins, J. Sambles, C. Lawrence, “Surface plasmon-polariton study of the optical dielectric function of titanium nitride,” J. Mod. Opt. 45(10), 2051–2062 (1998).
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Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, T. Tekin, M. Waldow, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, N. Pleros, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components: Going practical,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

C. Delacour, S. Blaize, P. Grosse, J. M. Fedeli, A. Bruyant, R. Salas-Montiel, G. Lerondel, A. Chelnokov, “Efficient directional coupling between silicon and copper plasmonic nanoslot waveguides: toward metal-oxide-silicon nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2922–2926 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophoton. (1)

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R. Ma, X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophoton. 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
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Nanotechnology (1)

M. B. Cortie, J. Giddings, A. Dowd, “Optical properties and plasmon resonances of titanium nitride nanostructures,” Nanotechnology 21(11), 115201 (2010).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

K. MacDonald, Z. Sámson, M. Stockman, N. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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D. K. Gramotnev, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Falk, F. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. Snapp, A. Akimov, M. Jo, M. Lukin, H. Park, “Near-field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single-plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 475–479 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (1)

46R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. a Genov, D. F. P. Pile, X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nature Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Thin Solid Films (2)

D. Steinmuller-Nethl, R. Kovacs, E. Gornik, P. Rodhammer, “Excitation of surface plasmons on titanium nitride films: determination of the dielectric function,” Thin Solid Films 237(1), 277–281 (1994).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Schematic view of the waveguide geometry cross-section. This illustrates the critical dimension parameters of the strip. b) Optical microscope image of the TiN waveguides fabricated on sapphire. c) Cross-section TEM of the TiN layer on sapphire used for verifying the thickness of the film. This was fed into the ellipsometry measurements to reduce parameter coupling during the extraction of optical properties. The epitaxial-quality of the TiN film can be seen as its cubic lattice structure is evident.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) Experimentally measured modal profile from the output facet of the TiN strip waveguide. b) Fitting of the z-cutline intensity with the typical exponential decay of the plasmonic mode. c) Simulated modal profile from COMSOL Multiphysics®. d) Fitting of the z-cutline with exponential decay functions. The fit was y = c exp(bz). Each side of the exponential was fit separately and stitched together for observation. Both show a root mean square error less than 0.02. Note the thickness of the TiN strip is enlarged for reference.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the solid-state waveguide system using a silicon nitride layer to obtain an effective index match with the sapphire substrate. The thickness (h) of the Si3N4 is varied and the propagation length and mode size are recorded. The width of the TiN strip is 9 µm and the thickness is considered to be 6 nm and 10 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Propagation length of the hybrid plasmonic mode versus the silicon nitride layer thickness. Modes for silicon nitride layers thinner than the cutoffs shown are predominately photonic in nature and are not considered. b) Mode size of the hybrid plasmonic mode versus the silicon nitride layer thickness. The highlighted data points illustrate that for a given propagation length, the thinner metal strip has a smaller mode size.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Modal profile of the hybrid plasmonic mode for t = 6 nm, and h = 350 nm. b) z-cutline of the mode profile and curve fitting, illustrating a mode size of 8.7 µm. The inset is an enlarged view of the intensity distribution near the metal which illustrates the hybrid nature of the mode.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Experimental Results for TiN Strip Waveguides on Sapphire Covered with Index Matching Oil*

Equations (2)

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Fo M 1 = Re{ε} Im{ε}
Fo M 2 = L prop n δ z

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