Abstract

A light-activated optical phase switch was developed, exploiting the conversion between left-handed and right-handed twisted nematic liquid crystals. Theoretical and experimental analyses revealed that the handedness inversion of the twisted nematic film altered the optical phase of the output waves by π. Herein, the competition between the helical twisting powers of the two reverse-handed chiral dopants determines the handedness of the twisted nematic film. The photo-responsibility and the bistability are attributed to the azobenzene chromophores in one of the chiral additives.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

X. J. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1975 (1)

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-J.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

Chen, J.-Y.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-J.

Cheng, K.-T.

Chiang, J.-T.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chien, Y.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

Chung, S. Y.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cui, H.-Q.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dumur, F.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elston, S. J.

L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

Feringa, B. L.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, S. P.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, Z.

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hara, T.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-W.

Hu, W.

Hu, X.-K.

Huang, S.-H.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Igasaki, Y.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

Kasyanyuk, D. S.

Ke, S.-W.

Kim, J.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-i.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S.-W.

Kobayashi, Y.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Konforti, N.

Kwok, H. S.

Y. W. Li, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, J. H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-C.

Lee, S. D.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.-N.

Li, Q.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. N.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. W.

Y. W. Li, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-C.

Liang, X.

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-H.

Lin, X.-W.

Lin, Y.-H.

Lin, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-S.

Lu, Y.-Q.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marom, E.

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mukohzaka, N.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parry-Jones, L. A.

L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pas’ko, V. A.

Pollard, M. M.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, D. H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Tabiryan, N. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, H.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C.-W.

Urbas, A.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

Wang, C.-T.

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C.-H.

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, T.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-W.

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

Wu, Y.-C.

Wu, Y.-H.

Yoon, T.-H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, N.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. J.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-H.

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, G.

Adv. Mater. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Li, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Yu, H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. A. Parry-Jones, S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Gooch, H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Yeh and C. Gu, “Jones Matrix Method,” in Optics of liquid crystal displays (Wiley, New York, 1999), pp. 103–160.

I. Dozov, “26.1: Invited Paper: Bistable Liquid Crystal Technologies,” SID Symp. Dig. Tec. 34, 946–949 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic π phase switching using an optically responsive twisted nematic film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

POM images of (a) left-handed state, (b) transformation of states and (c) right-handed state under crossed and parallel polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of interference patterns at (a) left-handed state, (b) transformation of states and (c) right-handed state, corresponding to (d) intensity distribution in cross-section (axis x).

Equations (9)

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M = ( cos ϕ sin ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ ) ( cos X i Γ 2 sin X X ϕ sin X X ϕ sin X X cos X + i Γ 2 sin X X ) ,
Γ = 2 π λ d ( n e n o ) = 2 π λ d Δ n ; X = ϕ 2 + ( Γ 2 ) 2 .
E o u t , + 90 ° = M E i n = ( ϕ sin X X cos X i Γ 2 sin X X ) .
E o u t , + 90 ° = ( ϕ sin ( Γ / 2 ) ( Γ / 2 ) cos ( Γ / 2 ) i sin ( Γ / 2 ) ) = exp ( i Γ / 2 ) ( 0 1 ) ,
E o u t , 90 ° = exp ( i Γ / 2 ) ( 0 1 ) .
P ChAD Green = (| HTP ChAD Green | C ChAD ) 1 < (| HTP R-811 | C R-811 ) 1 = P R-811 ;
P ChAD Violet = (| HTP ChAD Violet | C ChAD ) 1 > (| HTP R-811 | C R-811 ) 1 = P R-811 ;
P PRLC Green = (| HTP ChAD Green | C ChAD | HTP R-811 | C R-811 ) 1 >4d;
P PRLC Violet = (| HTP R-811 | C R-811 | HTP ChAD Violet | C ChAD ) 1 >4d,

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