Abstract

A light-activated optical phase switch was developed, exploiting the conversion between left-handed and right-handed twisted nematic liquid crystals. Theoretical and experimental analyses revealed that the handedness inversion of the twisted nematic film altered the optical phase of the output waves by π. Herein, the competition between the helical twisting powers of the two reverse-handed chiral dopants determines the handedness of the twisted nematic film. The photo-responsibility and the bistability are attributed to the azobenzene chromophores in one of the chiral additives.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Wang, Y.-C. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo-switchable bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal optical switch,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4361–4366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and D. S. Kasyanyuk, “Observation of polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2134–2136 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S.-W. Ko, S.-H. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15926–15931 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Li and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S.-W. Ke, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Tunable grating based on stressed liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2062–2067 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Parry-Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, and B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, “Phase-only modulation with twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 13(3), 251–253 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-J.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.-Y.

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-J.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, K.-T.

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiang, J.-T.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, Y.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, S. Y.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.-Q.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dumur, F.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, and B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elston, S. J.

L. A. Parry-Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fang, J.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feringa, B. L.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, and B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fletcher, S. P.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, and B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

S.-W. Ko, S.-H. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15926–15931 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ke, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Tunable grating based on stressed liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2062–2067 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Z.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hara, T.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-W.

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, X.-K.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.-H.

S.-W. Ko, S.-H. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15926–15931 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Igasaki, Y.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jau, H.-C.

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasyanyuk, D. S.

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and D. S. Kasyanyuk, “Observation of polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2134–2136 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, S.-W.

S.-W. Ke, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Tunable grating based on stressed liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2062–2067 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-i.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ko, S.-W.

S.-W. Ko, S.-H. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15926–15931 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Konforti, N.

N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, “Phase-only modulation with twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 13(3), 251–253 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwok, H. S.

Y. W. Li and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.-C.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. D.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-N.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. N.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. W.

Y. W. Li and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-C.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lim, S.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-H.

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-T. Wang, Y.-C. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo-switchable bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal optical switch,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4361–4366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ko, S.-H. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15926–15931 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ke, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Tunable grating based on stressed liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2062–2067 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X.-W.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-T.

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, Y.-S.

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.-Q.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marom, E.

N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, “Phase-only modulation with twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 13(3), 251–253 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mukohzaka, N.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

Parry-Jones, L. A.

L. A. Parry-Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pas’ko, V. A.

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and D. S. Kasyanyuk, “Observation of polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2134–2136 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollard, M. M.

S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, and B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shin, S. T.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, D. H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabiryan, N. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, H.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tseng, C.-W.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbas, A.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and D. S. Kasyanyuk, “Observation of polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2134–2136 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.-T.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-T. Wang, Y.-C. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo-switchable bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal optical switch,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4361–4366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, “Optical phased array technology,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 268–298 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wen, C.-H.

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[Crossref]

White, T.

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-W.

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

N. Konforti, E. Marom, and S. T. Wu, “Phase-only modulation with twisted nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 13(3), 251–253 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-C.

C.-T. Wang, Y.-C. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo-switchable bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal optical switch,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4361–4366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, N.

Y. Igasaki, F. Li, N. Yoshida, H. Toyoda, T. Inoue, N. Mukohzaka, Y. Kobayashi, and T. Hara, “High Efficiency Electrically-Addressable Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator,” Opt. Rev. 6(4), 339–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. J.

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.-H.

C.-T. Wang, C.-W. Tseng, J.-H. Yu, Y.-C. Li, C.-H. Lee, H.-C. Jau, M.-C. Lee, Y.-J. Chen, and T.-H. Lin, “Optical bistability in a silicon nitride microring resonator with azo dye-doped liquid crystal as cladding material,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10989–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

X.-W. Lin, W. Hu, X.-K. Hu, X. Liang, Y. Chen, H.-Q. Cui, G. Zhu, J.-N. Li, V. Chigrinov, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Fast response dual-frequency liquid crystal switch with photo-patterned alignments,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3627–3629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced Isotropic State of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Novel Dynamic Photonic Materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

H.-C. Jau, K.-T. Cheng, T.-H. Lin, Y.-S. Lo, J.-Y. Chen, C.-W. Hsu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photo-rewritable flexible LCD using indium zinc oxide/polycarbonate substrates,” Appl. Opt. 50(2), 213–217 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lee, C.-W. Wu, C.-W. Chen, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent bistable light valve in blue phase liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4849–4853 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-T. Chiang, Y.-S. Chien, C.-J. Chang, and H.-C. Lin, “Multistable Phase-Retardation Plate Based on Gelator-Doped Liquid Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(7), 072503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. H. Park, C. J. Yu, J. Kim, S. Y. Chung, and S. D. Lee, “Concept of a liquid-crystal polarization beamsplitter based on binary phase gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1918–1920 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, C.-H. Wen, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and submillisecond response phase modulators using a 90° twisted dual-frequency liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Li and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable twisted-bend and twisted-nematic liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 181107 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711–3713 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. H. Song, J. H. Lee, S. J. Lee, S.-i. Kim, S. Lim, S. T. Shin, J. C. Kim, and T.-H. Yoon, “Bistable switching of twist direction in a twisted-nematic liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

J. Ma, Y. N. Li, T. White, A. Urbas, and Q. Li, “Light-driven nanoscale chiral molecular switch: reversible dynamic full range color phototuning,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(20), 3463–3465 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. A. Parry-Jones and S. J. Elston, “Flexoelectric switching in a zenithally bistable nematic device,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093515 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Lin, H.-C. Jau, and T.-H. Lin, “Polarization-independent rapidly responding phase grating based on hybrid blue phase liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(6), 063103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

C.-T. Wang, Y.-C. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo-switchable bistable twisted nematic liquid crystal optical switch,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4361–4366 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Ko, S.-H. Huang, A. Y. G. Fuh, and T.-H. Lin, “Measurement of helical twisting power based on axially symmetrical photo-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15926–15931 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. V. Vasnetsov, V. A. Pas’ko, and D. S. Kasyanyuk, “Observation of polarization conflict caused by geometrical phase in a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2134–2136 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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S. P. Fletcher, F. Dumur, M. M. Pollard, and B. L. Feringa, “A Reversible, Unidirectional Molecular Rotary Motor Driven by Chemical Energy,” Science 310(5745), 80–82 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Yeh and C. Gu, “Jones Matrix Method,” in Optics of liquid crystal displays (Wiley, New York, 1999), pp. 103–160.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic π phase switching using an optically responsive twisted nematic film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

POM images of (a) left-handed state, (b) transformation of states and (c) right-handed state under crossed and parallel polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of interference patterns at (a) left-handed state, (b) transformation of states and (c) right-handed state, corresponding to (d) intensity distribution in cross-section (axis x).

Equations (9)

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M = ( cos ϕ sin ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ ) ( cos X i Γ 2 sin X X ϕ sin X X ϕ sin X X cos X + i Γ 2 sin X X ) ,
Γ = 2 π λ d ( n e n o ) = 2 π λ d Δ n ; X = ϕ 2 + ( Γ 2 ) 2 .
E o u t , + 90 ° = M E i n = ( ϕ sin X X cos X i Γ 2 sin X X ) .
E o u t , + 90 ° = ( ϕ sin ( Γ / 2 ) ( Γ / 2 ) cos ( Γ / 2 ) i sin ( Γ / 2 ) ) = exp ( i Γ / 2 ) ( 0 1 ) ,
E o u t , 90 ° = exp ( i Γ / 2 ) ( 0 1 ) .
P ChAD Green = (| HTP ChAD Green | C ChAD ) 1 < (| HTP R-811 | C R-811 ) 1 = P R-811 ;
P ChAD Violet = (| HTP ChAD Violet | C ChAD ) 1 > (| HTP R-811 | C R-811 ) 1 = P R-811 ;
P PRLC Green = (| HTP ChAD Green | C ChAD | HTP R-811 | C R-811 ) 1 >4d;
P PRLC Violet = (| HTP R-811 | C R-811 | HTP ChAD Violet | C ChAD ) 1 >4d,

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