Abstract

A method to compensate for fabrication tolerances and to fine-tune individual photonic circuit components is inevitable for wafer-scale photonic systems even with most-advanced CMOS-fabrication tools. We report a cost-effective and highly accurate method for the permanent trimming of hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic devices by UV-irradiation. Microring resonators and Mach-Zehnder-interferometers were utilized as photonic test devices. The MZIs were tuned forth and back over their complete free spectral range of 5.5 nm by locally trimming the two MZI-arms. The trimming range exceeds 8 nm for compact ring resonators with trimming accuracies of 20 pm. Trimming speeds of ≥ 10 GHz/s were achieved. The components did not show any substantial device degradation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2014 (3)

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kamei, “Sub-1 dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

J. T. Bessette and D. Ahn, “Vertically stacked microring waveguides for coupling between multiple photonic planes,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13580–13591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. D. Lee, M. O. Thompson, and M. Lipson, “Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26688–26692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, and J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Grillanda, V. Raghunathan, V. Singh, F. Morichetti, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, A. Melloni, and A. Agarwal, “Post-fabrication trimming of athermal silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5450–5453 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, and A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Trimming of high-q-factor silicon ring resonators by electron beam bleaching,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3114–3116 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, and M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. Gioffr, and F. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, and M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, I. Divliansky, D. Basov, and S. Mookherjea, “Electric-field-driven nano-oxidation trimming of silicon microrings and interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2668–2670 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, and S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Iodice, G. Mazzi, and L. Sirleto, “Thermo-optical static and dynamic analysis of a digital optical switch based on amorphous silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 5266–5278 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electronics Letters 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

N. H. Nickel, K. Brendel, and R. Saleh, “Laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol.C 1(5), 1154–1168 (2004).

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloy films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Cocorullo, F. G. D. Corte, I. Rendina, C. Minarini, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon waveguides and light modulators for integrated photonics realized by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2002–2004 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44, 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

D. G. Cahill, M. Katiyar, and J. R. Abelson, “Thermal conductivity of a-Si:H thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 50(9), 6077–6081 (1994).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, “Light-induced metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A systematic study,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 23–47 (1985).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
[Crossref]

Abelson, J. R.

D. G. Cahill, M. Katiyar, and J. R. Abelson, “Thermal conductivity of a-Si:H thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 50(9), 6077–6081 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J.

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adibi, A.

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, and A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

S. Grillanda, V. Raghunathan, V. Singh, F. Morichetti, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, A. Melloni, and A. Agarwal, “Post-fabrication trimming of athermal silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5450–5453 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

J. T. Bessette and D. Ahn, “Vertically stacked microring waveguides for coupling between multiple photonic planes,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13580–13591 (2013).
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Amemiya, T.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
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Amthor, J.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
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T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
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T. Lipka, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Process and device uniformity of low-loss a-Si:H,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC) (BurlingameCalifornia, 2012), pp. 923–924.

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous waveguides for high index photonic circuitry,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2009), paper OMJ2.

Arai, S.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
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Askari, M.

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, and A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
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Astakhov, O.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
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Atabaki, A. H.

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, and A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
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J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
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O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
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Baets, R.

J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
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B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
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J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
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Y. Shen, I. Divliansky, D. Basov, and S. Mookherjea, “Electric-field-driven nano-oxidation trimming of silicon microrings and interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2668–2670 (2011).
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Beals, M.

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
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Ben Bakir, B.

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
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Bessette, J. T.

J. T. Bessette and D. Ahn, “Vertically stacked microring waveguides for coupling between multiple photonic planes,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13580–13591 (2013).
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Bittl, R.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
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S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
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S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
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N. H. Nickel, K. Brendel, and R. Saleh, “Laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol.C 1(5), 1154–1168 (2004).

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D. G. Cahill, M. Katiyar, and J. R. Abelson, “Thermal conductivity of a-Si:H thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 50(9), 6077–6081 (1994).
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A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
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Carletti, L.

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
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Chen, C. J.

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
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Chen, Z.

O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
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Cheng, J.

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
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Chrostowski, L.

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
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Clemmen, S.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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G. Cocorullo, F. G. D. Corte, I. Rendina, C. Minarini, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon waveguides and light modulators for integrated photonics realized by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2002–2004 (1996).
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S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. Gioffr, and F. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
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F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
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G. Cocorullo, F. G. D. Corte, I. Rendina, C. Minarini, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon waveguides and light modulators for integrated photonics realized by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2002–2004 (1996).
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S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. Gioffr, and F. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
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Della Corte, F. G.

F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
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Divliansky, I.

Y. Shen, I. Divliansky, D. Basov, and S. Mookherjea, “Electric-field-driven nano-oxidation trimming of silicon microrings and interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2668–2670 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doylend, J.

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eftekhar, A. A.

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, and A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Trimming of high-q-factor silicon ring resonators by electron beam bleaching,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3114–3116 (2012).
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K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, and S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
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J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
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M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
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Fedeli, J. M.

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedosejevs, R.

O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fehr, M.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
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Finger, F.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
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K. Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012).
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H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
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Furuya, K.

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, and M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
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Galili, M.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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F. Gaspari, “Optoelectronic properties of amorphous silicon the role of hydrogen: from experiment to modeling,” in Optoelectronics - Materials and Techniques, P. Predeep, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 3–26.
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Gioffr, M.

S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. Gioffr, and F. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorza, S.

J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillanda, S.

S. Grillanda, V. Raghunathan, V. Singh, F. Morichetti, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, A. Melloni, and A. Agarwal, “Post-fabrication trimming of athermal silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5450–5453 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillet, C.

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grosse, P.

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
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Gu, T.

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harke, A.

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
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A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
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A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electronics Letters 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
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T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous waveguides for high index photonic circuitry,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2009), paper OMJ2.

Hasama, T.

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
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Hilterhaus, L.

T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, and J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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Hong, C. Y.

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honkanen, S.

M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horn, O.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Amorphous waveguides for high index photonic circuitry,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2009), paper OMJ2.

Hu, H.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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M. Iodice, G. Mazzi, and L. Sirleto, “Thermo-optical static and dynamic analysis of a digital optical switch based on amorphous silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 14, 5266–5278 (2006).
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Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
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Ishimura, T.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
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M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, “Light-induced metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A systematic study,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 23–47 (1985).
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S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Trimming of high-q-factor silicon ring resonators by electron beam bleaching,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3114–3116 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, P.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jessop, P.

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, H.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
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Kamei, T.

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kamei, “Sub-1 dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4779–4788 (2014).
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K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, and M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
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Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
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T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, and J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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T. Lipka, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Process and device uniformity of low-loss a-Si:H,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC) (BurlingameCalifornia, 2012), pp. 923–924.

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R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
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K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, and S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
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J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
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R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kamei, “Sub-1 dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saleem, M. R.

M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
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N. H. Nickel, K. Brendel, and R. Saleh, “Laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol.C 1(5), 1154–1168 (2004).

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
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M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrauwen, J.

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selvaraja, S.

J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
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Selvaraja, S. K.

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
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Y. Shen, I. Divliansky, D. Basov, and S. Mookherjea, “Electric-field-driven nano-oxidation trimming of silicon microrings and interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2668–2670 (2011).
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K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44, 475–588 (1995).
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T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloy films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
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H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
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Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
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S. Grillanda, V. Raghunathan, V. Singh, F. Morichetti, J. Michel, L. Kimerling, A. Melloni, and A. Agarwal, “Post-fabrication trimming of athermal silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5450–5453 (2013).
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A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
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S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
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A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
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D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
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M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, “Light-induced metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A systematic study,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 23–47 (1985).
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Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Summonte, C.

F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, R.

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
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Takei, R.

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kamei, “Sub-1 dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, and M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tervonen, A.

M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
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G. Cocorullo, F. G. D. Corte, I. Rendina, C. Minarini, A. Rubino, and E. Terzini, “Amorphous silicon waveguides and light modulators for integrated photonics realized by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2002–2004 (1996).
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M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, and K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
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Thompson, M. O.

Y. H. D. Lee, M. O. Thompson, and M. Lipson, “Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26688–26692 (2013).
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Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

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M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trieu, H. K.

T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, and J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. C.

M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, “Light-induced metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A systematic study,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 23–47 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, H.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsui, Y. Y.

O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
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Vafaei, R.

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van, V.

O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varghese, L.

L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, and M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velha, P.

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahn, L.

T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, and J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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Wang, J.

L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, and M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
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Wang, K. Y.

K. Y. Wang and A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012).
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S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
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Wong, C. W.

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
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D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
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S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
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Wu, Z.

S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
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Xuan, Y.

L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, and M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
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Ying, Z.

S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoda, H.

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
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Yoo, S. J. B.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
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Yu, M.

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
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Zheng, J.

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
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Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
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Zhu, S. Y.

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
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Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44, 475–588 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
[Crossref]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, and G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
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Electronics Letters (1)

A. Harke, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electronics Letters 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, and J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
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L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
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J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. (1)

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, and J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, and I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, and C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophoton. (1)

T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, and J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
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K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, and M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloy films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (20)

R. Takei, S. Manako, E. Omoda, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, and T. Kamei, “Sub-1 dB/cm submicrometer-scale amorphous silicon waveguide for backend on-chip optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4779–4788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Bessette and D. Ahn, “Vertically stacked microring waveguides for coupling between multiple photonic planes,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13580–13591 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, and S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, and D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Safioui, F. Leo, B. Kuyken, S. Gorza, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, P. Emplit, G. Roelkens, and S. Massar, “Supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3089–3097 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, and C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. Gioffr, and F. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. D. Lee, M. O. Thompson, and M. Lipson, “Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26688–26692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, and M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, and A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, and V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated resonant wavelength shift of a ring resonator as a function of guided mode index at 1550 nm wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematical view of the measurement setup. Pictures of fabricated a-Si:H photonic test devices: (b) 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer, (c) 10 μm radius ring resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) MZI beat fringes blue- and redshifted due to long and short arm trimming. (b) Mean extinction ratios in C-band as a function of RI-induced phase shifts in the MZI-arms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) MRR resonance wavelength shift Δλres as a function of irradiation time for different power levels. (b) Wavelength shift as a function of exposure dose.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimentally determined MRR resonance peaks in telecommunication C-band successively blueshifted by Δλres = 1 nm per trimming step. (b) Spectral deviation of the peaks from target positions. (c) Mean loaded MRR Q-factors evaluated for each trimming step.

Equations (2)

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Δ λ res λ res = Δ n eff n eff ( λ ) L trim L MRR 1 1 λ n eff ( λ ) d n eff d λ .
I ( r , z ) = 2 P π ω 2 ( z ) exp ( 2 r 2 ω 2 ( z ) ) .

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