Abstract

A method to compensate for fabrication tolerances and to fine-tune individual photonic circuit components is inevitable for wafer-scale photonic systems even with most-advanced CMOS-fabrication tools. We report a cost-effective and highly accurate method for the permanent trimming of hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic devices by UV-irradiation. Microring resonators and Mach-Zehnder-interferometers were utilized as photonic test devices. The MZIs were tuned forth and back over their complete free spectral range of 5.5 nm by locally trimming the two MZI-arms. The trimming range exceeds 8 nm for compact ring resonators with trimming accuracies of 20 pm. Trimming speeds of ≥ 10 GHz/s were achieved. The components did not show any substantial device degradation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (6)

2012 (9)

S. Rao, G. Coppola, M. Gioffr, F. Della Corte, “A 2.5 ns switching time MachZehnder modulator in as-deposited a-Si:H,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9351–9356 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Wang, A. C. Foster, “Ultralow power continuous-wave frequency conversion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(8), 1331–1333 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Prorok, A. Y. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, “Trimming of high-q-factor silicon ring resonators by electron beam bleaching,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3114–3116 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Erdmanis, L. Karvonen, M. R. Saleem, M. Ruoho, V. Pale, A. Tervonen, S. Honkanen, I. Tittonen, “ALD-assisted multiorder dispersion engineering of nanophotonic strip waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2488–2493 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shen, I. Divliansky, D. Basov, S. Mookherjea, “Electric-field-driven nano-oxidation trimming of silicon microrings and interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2668–2670 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, A. Ohshima, T. Ishimura, H. Furuhashi, H. Tsuchiya, C. Tsai, “A two-port single-mode fiber-silicon wire waveguide coupler module using spot-size converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1315–1319 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electronics Letters 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

N. H. Nickel, K. Brendel, R. Saleh, “Laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol.C 1(5), 1154–1168 (2004).

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloy films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, S. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44, 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. G. Cahill, M. Katiyar, J. R. Abelson, “Thermal conductivity of a-Si:H thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 50(9), 6077–6081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, C. C. Tsai, “Light-induced metastable defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon: A systematic study,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 23–47 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. L. Staebler, C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abelson, J. R.

D. G. Cahill, M. Katiyar, J. R. Abelson, “Thermal conductivity of a-Si:H thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 50(9), 6077–6081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J.

Adibi, A.

Agarwal, A.

Ahn, D.

Amemiya, T.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amthor, J.

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Lipka, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Process and device uniformity of low-loss a-Si:H,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC) (BurlingameCalifornia, 2012), pp. 923–924.

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Amorphous waveguides for high index photonic circuitry,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2009), paper OMJ2.

Arai, S.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Askari, M.

Astakhov, O.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atabaki, A. H.

Atsumi, Y.

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bachman, O.

Baets, R.

Basov, D.

Beals, M.

Ben Bakir, B.

Bessette, J. T.

Bittl, R.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, K.

N. H. Nickel, K. Brendel, R. Saleh, “Laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol.C 1(5), 1154–1168 (2004).

Cahill, D. G.

D. G. Cahill, M. Katiyar, J. R. Abelson, “Thermal conductivity of a-Si:H thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 50(9), 6077–6081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Canciamilla, A.

Carletti, L.

Chen, C. J.

Chen, Z.

Cheng, J.

Chrostowski, L.

Clemmen, S.

Cocorullo, G.

Coppola, G.

Corte, F. G. D.

Della Corte, F.

Della Corte, F. G.

Divliansky, I.

Doylend, J.

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eftekhar, A. A.

Eich, M.

Elliott, S.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, S. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44, 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Elshaari, A. W.

Emplit, P.

Erdmanis, M.

Fan, L.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedosejevs, R.

Fehr, M.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finger, F.

M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, A. C.

Furuhashi, H.

Furuya, K.

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

Gaspari, F.

F. Gaspari, “Optoelectronic properties of amorphous silicon the role of hydrogen: from experiment to modeling,” in Optoelectronics - Materials and Techniques, P. Predeep, ed. (InTech, 2011), pp. 3–26.
[CrossRef]

Gioffr, M.

Gorza, S.

Grillanda, S.

Grillet, C.

Grosse, P.

Gu, T.

Harke, A.

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A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
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M. Fehr, A. Schnegg, B. Rech, O. Astakhov, F. Finger, R. Bittl, C. Teutloff, K. Lips, “Metastable defect formation at microvoids identified as a source of light-induced degradation in a-Si:H,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 066403 (2014).
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T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon as high index photonic material,” Proc. SPIE 7366, paper 73661Z (2009).
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A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
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A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electronics Letters 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
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T. Lipka, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Process and device uniformity of low-loss a-Si:H,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conf. (IPC) (BurlingameCalifornia, 2012), pp. 923–924.

T. Lipka, A. Harke, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Amorphous waveguides for high index photonic circuitry,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2009), paper OMJ2.

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T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
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S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
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L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
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Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, S. Elliott, “Photoinduced effects and metastability in amorphous semiconductors and insulators,” Adv. Phys. 44, 475–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. L. Staebler, C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, M. Schaekers, “Thermal trimming and tuning of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nanophotonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 071120 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Li, Y. Jiang, Z. Wu, J. Wu, Z. Ying, Z. Wang, W. Li, G. J. Salamo, “Effect of structure variation on thermal conductivity of hydrogenated silicon film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8326–8329 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electronics Letters (1)

A. Harke, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Low-loss singlemode amorphous silicon waveguides,” Electronics Letters 41(25), 1377–1379 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Harke, T. Lipka, J. Amthor, O. Horn, M. Krause, J. Müller, “Amorphous silicon 3-D tapers for Si photonic wires fabricated with shadow masks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1452–1454 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with uv-sensitive pmma upper-cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. (1)

T. Lipka, O. Horn, J. Amthor, J. Müller, “Low-loss multilayer compatible a-Si:H optical thin films for photonic applications,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rap. Publicat. 7, 12033 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Nanophoton. (1)

T. Lipka, L. Wahn, H. K. Trieu, L. Hilterhaus, J. Müller, “Label-free photonic biosensors fabricated with low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonators,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 073793 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Kang, Y. Atsumi, M. Oda, T. Amemiya, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, “Low-loss amorphous silicon multilayer waveguides vertically stacked on silicon-on-insulator substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 120208 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Furuya, R. Takei, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, M. Mori, “Basic study of coupling on three-dimensional crossing of Si photonic wire waveguide for optical interconnection on inter or inner chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 4DG12 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Shimizu, “Staebler-Wronski effect in hydrogenated amorphous silicon and related alloy films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(6A), 3257–3268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun. 282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
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Opt. Express (20)

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J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
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R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express 16,(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
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Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, M. Mori, “Ultrafast nonlinear effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5668–5673 (2010).
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K. Narayanan, A. W. Elshaari, S. F. Preble, “Broadband all-optical modulation in hydrogenated-amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(10), 9809–9814 (2010).
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S. Y. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, “Low-loss amorphous silicon wire waveguide for integrated photonics: effect of fabrication process and the thermal stability,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25283–25291 (2010).
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F. G. Della Corte, S. Rao, G. Coppola, C. Summonte, “Electro-optical modulation at 1550 nm in an as-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n waveguiding device,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2941–2951 (2011).
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J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 11969–11976 (2011).
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C. J. Chen, J. Zheng, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, C. W. Wong, “Selective tuning of high-Q silicon photonic crystal nanocavities via laser-assisted local oxidation,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12480–12489 (2011).
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L. Fan, L. Varghese, Y. Xuan, J. Wang, B. Niu, M. Qi, “Direct fabrication of silicon photonic devices on a flexible platform and its application for strain sensing,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20564–20575 (2012).
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C. Grillet, L. Carletti, C. Monat, P. Grosse, B. Ben Bakir, S. Menezo, J. M. Fedeli, D. J. Moss, “Amorphous silicon nanowires combining high nonlinearity, FOM and optical stability,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22609–22615 (2012).
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O. Bachman, Z. Chen, R. Fedosejevs, Y. Y. Tsui, V. Van, “Permanent fine tuning of silicon microring devices by femtosecond laser surface amorphization and ablation,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11048–11056 (2013).
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J. T. Bessette, D. Ahn, “Vertically stacked microring waveguides for coupling between multiple photonic planes,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13580–13591 (2013).
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A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Askari, A. Adibi, “Accurate post-fabrication trimming of ultra-compact resonators on silicon,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14139–14145 (2013).
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Y. H. D. Lee, M. O. Thompson, M. Lipson, “Deposited low temperature silicon GHz modulator,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26688–26692 (2013).
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B. Kuyken, H. Ji, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, H. Hu, M. Pu, M. Galili, P. Jeppesen, G. Morthier, S. Massar, L. Oxenlwe, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, “Nonlinear properties of and nonlinear processing in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(26), B146–B153 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated resonant wavelength shift of a ring resonator as a function of guided mode index at 1550 nm wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematical view of the measurement setup. Pictures of fabricated a-Si:H photonic test devices: (b) 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer, (c) 10 μm radius ring resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) MZI beat fringes blue- and redshifted due to long and short arm trimming. (b) Mean extinction ratios in C-band as a function of RI-induced phase shifts in the MZI-arms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) MRR resonance wavelength shift Δλres as a function of irradiation time for different power levels. (b) Wavelength shift as a function of exposure dose.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimentally determined MRR resonance peaks in telecommunication C-band successively blueshifted by Δλres = 1 nm per trimming step. (b) Spectral deviation of the peaks from target positions. (c) Mean loaded MRR Q-factors evaluated for each trimming step.

Equations (2)

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Δ λ res λ res = Δ n eff n eff ( λ ) L trim L MRR 1 1 λ n eff ( λ ) d n eff d λ .
I ( r , z ) = 2 P π ω 2 ( z ) exp ( 2 r 2 ω 2 ( z ) ) .

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