Abstract

A general description of electro-optic detection including non-collinear phase matching and finite transverse beam profiles is presented. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that non-collinear phase matching in ZnTe (and similar materials) produces an angular chirp in the χ(2)-generated optical signal. Due to this, in non-collinear THz and probe arrangements such as single-shot THz measurements or through accidental misalignment, measurement of an undistorted THz signal is critically dependent on having sufficient angular acceptance in the optical probe path. The associated spatial walk-off can also preclude the phase retardation approximation used in THz-TDS. The rate of misalignment-induced chirping in commonly used ZnTe and GaP schemes is tabulated, allowing ready analysis of a detection system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33, 871–925 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y.-C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: a review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417, 48–60 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Xie, Y. Yao, Y. Ying, “The application of terahertz spectroscopy to protein detection: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 49, 448–461 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” App. Phys. Lett. 692321–2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 161204–1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, H. Nakatsuka, “Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907–4912 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 792–794 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xie, Y. Yao, Y. Ying, “The application of terahertz spectroscopy to protein detection: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 49, 448–461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33, 871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y.-C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: a review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417, 48–60 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. P. Wijnen, G. Berden, R. T. Jongma, “A simple optical spectral calibration technique for pulsed THz sources,” Opt. Express 18, 26517–26524 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, H. Nakatsuka, “Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907–4912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 161204–1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” App. Phys. Lett. 692321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berden, G.

Branning, D.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Broeuf, N.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Busacca, A. C.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaperot, I.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cino, A. C.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darrow, J. T.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dauler, E.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 161204–1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, W. A.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 161204–1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guerin, S.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, H. Nakatsuka, “Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907–4912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” App. Phys. Lett. 692321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Jaeger, G.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S. P.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

Jeon, T.-I.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33, 871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jongma, R. T.

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Livreri, P.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

J. Lloyd-Hughes, T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 33, 871–925 (2012).
[CrossRef]

MacLeod, A. M.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Jamison, A. M. MacLeod, G. Berden, D. A. Jaroszynski, W. A. Gillespie, “Temporally resolved electro-optic effect,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1753–1755 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madaras, E.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Modjesch, G.

B. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S246–S253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, A.

N. Broeuf, D. Branning, I. Chaperot, E. Dauler, S. Guerin, G. Jaeger, A. Muller, A. Migdall, “Calculating characteristics of noncollinear phase matching in uniaxial and biaxial crystals,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1016–1024 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” App. Phys. Lett. 692321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, H.

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, H. Nakatsuka, “Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907–4912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parisi, A.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peccianti, M.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, P. J.

S. P. Jamison, G. Berden, P. J. Phillips, W. A. Gillespie, A. M. MacLeod, “Upconversion of a relativistic Coulomb field terahertz pulse to the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reightler, R.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: a review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417, 48–60 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. R.

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stivala, S.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomasino, A.

A. Tomasino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, P. Livreri, A. C. Cino, A. C. Busacca, M. Peccianti, R. Morandotti, “Wideband THz time domain spectroscopy based on optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3116 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane, R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tukamoto, K.

T. Hattori, K. Tukamoto, H. Nakatsuka, “Time-resolved study of intense terahertz pulses generated by a large-aperture photoconductive antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4907–4912 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” App. Phys. Lett. 692321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wijnen, F. J. P.

Xie, L.

L. Xie, Y. Yao, Y. Ying, “The application of terahertz spectroscopy to protein detection: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 49, 448–461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Z.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

L. Xie, Y. Yao, Y. Ying, “The application of terahertz spectroscopy to protein detection: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 49, 448–461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ying, Y.

L. Xie, Y. Yao, Y. Ying, “The application of terahertz spectroscopy to protein detection: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 49, 448–461 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, T.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Zhong, J. Z. Xu, X. Xie, T. Yuan, R. Reightler, E. Madaras, X. C. Zhang, “Nondestructive defect identification with terahertz time-of-flight tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 203–208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” App. Phys. Lett. 692321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. P. Jamison, “The electro-optic effect for intense terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 241–247 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450–3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, P. R. Smith, “Optically steerable photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 886–888 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

k-vector diagram illustrating the modelled non-collinear phase matching condition. The angles and k-vectors are not drawn to scale to increase clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-matching efficiency plots calculated for a 4 mm (110) ZnTe crystal. Here the external angle (ϕext) refers to the angle of incidence of the THz wave on the ZnTe surface, which is related to the internal angle (ϕ) by Snell’s law. a) Plot showing contribution of the z-dependent component. The vertical green lines indicate the 50% efficiency width from plot b, b) ϕext = 0°, L = 50μm, c) ϕext = 0°, L = 500μm, d) ϕext = 12°, L = 50μm, e) ϕext = 12°, L = 500μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Schematic layout of the experimental system illustrating the gimballed mirror and conjugate parabolic mirror pair arrangement for stable, angle-only, tuning of the THz pulse incident on the ZnTe. Also shown is the implementation of a 90° rotating periscope in the optical transfer line before a lens which mapped the upconverted waves onto the imaging spectrometer. The quarter-wave plate (QWP) either compensated for residual birefringence, or provided an optical bias for balanced detection. b) Example temporal profile recovered via TDS measurements with a 50 fs probe and c) Example THz spectrum obtained via Spectral Upconversion with a 10 ps probe compared to a spectrum found via the FFT of the THz TDS trace (vertically offset for clarity). The Spectral Upconversion trace in this plot was limited by the resolution of the spectrometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the calculated chirp in the phase matching efficiency (a and b) with the experimentally observed chirp in the Spectral Upconversion (d and e). Plot c shows the shift of the peak of the detected spectra (Gaussian fit centers) vs the propagation angle for a subset of measured THz incident angles. Plot f compares how the calculated and experimental chirp of the upconversion varies with THz incident angle, including linear fits, showing a small systematic error but good overall agreement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Schematic representation of the optics used to investigate the effect of non-collinear phasematching (10° THz angle of incidence) combined with a finite aperture (a 150 μm slit placed in front of a fiber-coupler) on the THz spectrum recorded via Spectral Upconversion. b) Plot showing the modification to the recorded spectrum as the position of the slit was adjusted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase-matching efficiency for the non-linear mixing processes (Spectral Upconversion) in 100 μm ZnTe for A 100 μm (e−1 radius) and B 1.0 mm THz spot size. The corresponding total bandwidths for a given range of output angles (0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 degrees, see lines) are shown in B and D.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chirp rates and opening angle parameters for several commonly used crystals and probe wavelengths.

Equations (7)

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E ˜ out opt ( ω ) = E ˜ in opt ( ω ) + i α ω χ ( 2 ) E ˜ in opt ( ω Ω ) ζ ( Ω ) E ˜ THz ( Ω ) d Ω ,
E ˜ out opt ( ω ) E ˜ in opt ( ω ) ( 1 + i α ω χ ( 2 ) E eff THz ( τ ) ) = E ˜ in opt ( ω ) exp ( i α ω χ ( 2 ) E eff THz ( τ ) ) .
E ˜ out opt ( ω ) = E in opt ( δ ( ω ω 0 ) + i α ω χ ( 2 ) ζ ( ω 0 ω ) E ˜ THz ( ω 0 ω ) ) ,
P ˜ ( ω 3 , r _ ) = α χ ( 2 ) E ˜ opt ( ω 1 , r _ ) E ˜ THz ( ω 2 , r _ ) .
P ˜ ( ω 3 , r _ ) = α χ ( 2 ) A ˜ 1 ( ω 1 , r _ ) A ˜ 2 ( ω 2 , r _ ) exp ( i ( k _ 1 + k _ 2 ) r _ ) ) .
A ˜ 3 ( ω 3 , θ , ϕ ) = α ω 3 χ ( 2 ) exp ( i Δ k z L ) 1 Δ k z A ˜ 1 ( ω 1 , x , y ) A ˜ 2 ( ω 2 , x , y ) exp ( i ( Δ k x x + Δ k y y ) ) d x d y ,
A ˜ 3 ( ω 3 , θ , ϕ ) = α ω 3 χ ( 2 ) exp ( 1 2 ( σ x 2 Δ k x 2 + σ y 2 Δ k y 2 ) ) exp ( i Δ k z L ) 1 Δ k z L A ˜ 1 ( ω 1 ) A ˜ 2 ( ω 2 ) ,

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