Abstract

In this work, the nonlinear optical response of some organophilic and hydrophilic carbon dots derived from gallate precursors is studied under 4 ns and 35 ps, visible (532 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) laser excitation conditions by the Z-scan technique. The prepared carbon dots were found to exhibit considerable nonlinear optical response in the visible, the organophilic ones exhibiting stronger response in the infrared and, in general, significantly larger response than their hydrophilic counterparts. In all cases, the corresponding nonlinear optical parameters have been determined. In particular, it was found that both carbon dots exhibited important negative nonlinear refractivity, under all excitation conditions tried, corresponding to self-defocusing, while negligible nonlinear absorption was found in the ps regime. Oppositely, both types of carbon dots were found to exhibit sizeable nonlinear absorption under ns excitation, indicating their potential for optical limiting applications. The present results are discussed and compared with other results concerning similar carbon based nanostructures reported in the literature.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  26. N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).
  27. A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).
  36. N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, “D. J. Hagan E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

I. M. Kislyakov, C. S. Yelleswarapu, “Nonlinear scattering studies of carbon black suspensions using photoacoustic Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

S. N. Baker, G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, “Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(3), 467–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Myung, Y. Bae, A. J. Bard, “Effect of surface passivation on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1053–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, M. S. Yur’ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc. 94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, “D. J. Hagan E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aloukos, P.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Amin, V. A.

M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anni, M.

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bae, Y.

N. Myung, Y. Bae, A. J. Bard, “Effect of surface passivation on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1053–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J. F.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bakandritsos, A.

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G. A.

S. N. Baker, G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, S. N.

S. N. Baker, G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bard, A. J.

N. Myung, Y. Bae, A. J. Bard, “Effect of surface passivation on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1053–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barinov, O. V.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Bellare, J. R.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Belousova, I. M.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, M. S. Yur’ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc. 94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, B. S.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borkovskii, M. F.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Bourlinos, A. B.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callan, J. F.

S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, S.

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G. X.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, “Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(3), 467–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, T. C.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cozzoli, P. D.

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y. P.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Deratani, A.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, “D. J. Hagan E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Detkov, P.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, Y.-M.

H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eddaoudi, H.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fernando, K. A. S.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frederick, M. T.

M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gearheart, L.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakilas, G.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giannelis, E. P.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giorgi, M.

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H. M.

H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gournis, D.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harruff, B. A.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hola, K.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, “Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(3), 467–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, A.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Hu, S.

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Impellizzeri, S.

S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janot, J. M.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, S. A.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Kamanina, N. V.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Karakassides, M.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karakassides, M. A.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kermarrec, F.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kislyakov, I. M.

I. M. Kislyakov, C. S. Yelleswarapu, “Nonlinear scattering studies of carbon black suspensions using photoacoustic Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kokkinaki, O.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A.

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korovin, S.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kose, M. E.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koudoumas, E.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kouloumpis, A.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, N. M.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Krysmann, M.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kukharchik, A. A.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Kuzhakov, P. V.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Kuznetsov, V.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leach, S.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liaros, N.

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J. H.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-H.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, P. G.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, S.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mavromanolakis, A.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, B.

S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meziani, M. J.

L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaut, X.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mironova, N. G.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, M. S. Yur’ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc. 94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morello, G.

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myung, N.

N. Myung, Y. Bae, A. J. Bard, “Effect of surface passivation on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1053–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nashold, K. M.

Nevejina-Sturhan, A.

A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Papagiannouli, I.

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, P.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petlitsyn, A. A.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Petr, J.

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pimenov, S.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ploehn, H. J.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prokhorenkov, A. V.

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Pustovoi, V.

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, G.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, G.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Qian, S.

D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raker, K.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, R.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymo, F. M.

S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahu, S.

L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, “D. J. Hagan E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saran, A. D.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scobelev, A. G.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scrivens, W. A.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serov, S. V.

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Seta, P.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shurpo, N. A.

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Siegner, U.

A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stassinopoulos, A.

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stryland, E. V.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Studeonov, V. I.

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Sun, S.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Sun, Y.-P.

L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabo, T.

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. L.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P. G.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, P. Ya.

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Veca, L. M.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, D. P.

Wang, B.

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Wang, Q.-Q.

H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.-H.

H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Wei, T.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, E. A.

M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Werhahn, O.

A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S. Y.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, W.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-T.

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelleswarapu, C. S.

I. M. Kislyakov, C. S. Yelleswarapu, “Nonlinear scattering studies of carbon black suspensions using photoacoustic Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

You, X. Z.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yur’ev, M. S.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, M. S. Yur’ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc. 94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zboril, R.

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Liaros, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Fluoro-graphene: nonlinear optical properties,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21027–21038 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zha, G.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. C.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, B.

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. Q.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

Zhu, B. H.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zubtsova, Yu. A.

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

Zuo, J. L.

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res.

L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, S. Sahu, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of graphene versus other carbon nanomaterials,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46(1), 171–180 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

S. N. Baker, G. A. Baker, “Luminescent carbon nanodots: emergent nanolights,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(38), 6726–6744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Nevejina-Sturhan, O. Werhahn, U. Siegner, “Low-threshold high-dynamic-range optical limiter for ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74(6), 553–557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Tan, W. Ji, J. L. Zuo, J. F. Bai, X. Z. You, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical-limiting properties of neutral nickel dithiolenes,” Appl. Phys. B 70(6), 809–812 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. H. Zhu, H. C. Zhang, J. Y. Zhang, Y. P. Cui, Z. Q. Zhou, “Surface-related two-photon absorption and refraction of CdSe quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2), 021908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Kislyakov, C. S. Yelleswarapu, “Nonlinear scattering studies of carbon black suspensions using photoacoustic Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. Liu, H. Yang, S. Qian, “Femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(11), 2088–2090 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, “Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(3), 467–470 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Carbon

A. B. Bourlinos, M. A. Karakassides, A. Kouloumpis, D. Gournis, A. Bakandritsos, I. Papagiannouli, P. Aloukos, S. Couris, K. Hola, R. Zboril, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots,” Carbon 61, 640–643 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.)

X. Wang, L. Cao, F. Lu, M. J. Meziani, H. Li, G. Qi, B. Zhou, B. A. Harruff, F. Kermarrec, Y.-P. Sun, “Photoinduced electron transfers with carbon dots,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 2009(25), 3774–3776 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater.

A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zbořil, J. Petr, A. Bakandritsos, M. Krysmann, E. P. Giannelis, “Luminescent surface quaternized carbon dots,” Chem. Mater. 24(1), 6–8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, G. Georgakilas, E. P. Giannelis, “Photoluminescent carbogenic dots,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4539–4541 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, J. M. Janot, H. Eddaoudi, A. Deratani, P. Seta, S. Leach, “Optical limiting behaviour of the water-soluble C60/γ-cyclodextrin complex,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318(4-5), 488–495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Koudoumas, O. Kokkinaki, M. Konstantaki, S. Couris, S. Korovin, P. Detkov, V. Kuznetsov, S. Pimenov, V. Pustovoi, “Onion-like and diamond nanoparticles for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 357(5-6), 336–340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Said, T. Wei, D. Hagan, E. V. Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. DeSalvo, A. A. Said, “D. J. Hagan E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption and n2 in wide bandgap solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324–1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces

S.-T. Yang, X. Wang, H. Wang, F. Lu, P. G. Luo, L. Cao, M. J. Meziani, J.-H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Chen, Y. Huang, Y.-P. Sun, “Carbon dots as nontoxic and high-performance fluorescence imaging agents,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 113(42), 18110–18114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

X. Xu, R. Ray, Y. Gu, H. J. Ploehn, L. Gearheart, K. Raker, W. A. Scrivens, “Electrophoretic analysis and purification of fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube fragments,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(40), 12736–12737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Sun, B. Zhou, Y. Lin, W. Wang, K. A. S. Fernando, P. Pathak, M. J. Meziani, B. A. Harruff, X. Wang, H. Wang, P. G. Luo, H. Yang, M. E. Kose, B. Chen, L. M. Veca, S. Y. Xie, “Quantum-sized carbon dots for bright and colorful photoluminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(24), 7756–7757 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zheng, Y. Chi, Y. Dong, J. Lin, B. Wang, “Electrochemiluminescence of water-soluble carbon nanocrystals released electrochemically from graphite,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(13), 4564–4565 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Impellizzeri, B. McCaughan, J. F. Callan, F. M. Raymo, “Photoinduced enhancement in the luminescence of hydrophilic quantum dots coated with photocleavable ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(4), 2276–2283 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Mathew, A. D. Saran, B. S. Bhardwaj, S. A. Joseph, P. Radhakrishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, C. P. G. Vallabhan, J. R. Bellare, “Size-dependent optical properties of the CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in the strong confinement regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 074312 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Chen, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, H. I. Elim, G. H. Ma, W. Ji, “Preparation of carbon nanoparticles with strong optical limiting properties by laser ablation in water,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1455–1459 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

H. M. Gong, X.-H. Wang, Y.-M. Du, Q.-Q. Wang, “Optical nonlinear absorption and refraction of CdS and CdS-Ag core-shell quantum dots,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(2), 024707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

S. Hu, Y. Dong, J. Yang, J. Liu, S. Cao, “Simultaneous synthesis of luminescent carbon nanoparticles and carbon nanocages by laser ablation of carbon black suspension and their optical limiting properties,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(5), 1957–1961 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. C

B. Zhu, S. Sun, Y. Wang, S. Deng, G. Qian, M. Wang, A. Hu, “Preparation of carbon nanodots from single chain polymeric nanoparticles and theoretical investigation of the photoluminescence mechanism,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1, 580–586 (2013).

J. Mod. Opt.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Chen, G. Zhang, G. Zha, S. Cao, W. Xie, “Optical nonlinearities and optical limiting of CdSeS/ZnS quantum dots,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(17), 1868–1873 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, X. Michaut, S. Couris, S. Leach, “Transient and instantaneous third-order nonlinear optical response of C60 and the higher fullerenes C70, C76 and C84,” J. Phys. B. 34(24), 4983–4996 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

N. Liaros, P. Aloukos, A. Kolokithas-Ntoukas, A. Bakandritsos, T. Szabo, R. Zboril, S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties and broadband optical power limiting action of grapheme oxide colloids,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6842–6850 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett.

M. T. Frederick, V. A. Amin, E. A. Weiss, “Optical properties of strongly coupled quantum dot−ligand systems,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(4), 634–640 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

N. Myung, Y. Bae, A. J. Bard, “Effect of surface passivation on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1053–1055 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett.

G. Morello, M. Anni, P. D. Cozzoli, L. Manna, R. Cingolani, M. Giorgi, “The role of intrinsic and surface states on the emission properties of colloidial CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 2(10), 512–514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, A. G. Scobelev, M. S. Yur’ev, “The investigation of nonlinear optical limiting by aqueous suspensions of carbon nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 235(4-6), 445–452 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Spectrosc.

I. M. Belousova, N. G. Mironova, M. S. Yur’ev, “Theoretical investigation of nonlinear limiting of laser radiation power by suspensions of carbon particles,” Opt. Spectrosc. 94(1), 86–91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

N. V. Kamanina, N. A. Shurpo, Yu. A. Zubtsova, A. V. Prokhorenkov, S. V. Serov, P. Ya. Vasilyev, V. I. Studeonov, F. Kajzar, “Photorefractive and photoconductive properties of the organic materials doped with fullerenes, quantum dots and nanotubes,” Proc. SPIE 7838, 78381G (2010).

N. V. Kamanina, P. V. Kuzhakov, S. V. Serov, A. A. Kukharchik, A. A. Petlitsyn, O. V. Barinov, M. F. Borkovskii, N. M. Kozhevnikov, F. Kajzar, “Nanostructured materials and their optical features,” Proc. SPIE 8622, 86221B (2013).

Small

A. B. Bourlinos, A. Stassinopoulos, D. Anglos, R. Zboril, M. Karakassides, E. P. Giannelis, “Surface functionalized carbogenic quantum dots,” Small 4(4), 455–458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of LG27 in chloroform (a) and GU5 in water (b) C-dots dispersions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

“Divided” Z-scans of organophilic LG27 (a,b) and hydrophilic GU5 (c) C-dots under 35 ps, 532 nm (a,c) and 1064 nm (b) laser excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Z-scans of organophilic LG27 (a) and hydrophilic GU5 (b) C-dots dispersions, under 532 nm, 4 ns laser excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

“Open-aperture” Z-scans of an organophilic LG27 C-dots dispersion (2.8 mg/mL, α0≈8 cm−1) under 532 nm, 4 ns laser excitation exhibiting (a) SA at low laser intensity, and (b,c) RSA at higher intensities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluence dependent transmittance of the LG27 (a) and GU5 (b) C-dots dispersions under 4 ns, 532 nm excitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TEM (top) and AFM (bottom) images of the GU5 carbon dots (4-12 nm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IR spectrum of GU5 in KBr.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

XPS profile of GU5 sample

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption-emission spectra of GU5 in H2O (0.2 mg mL−1). Inset: aqueous drops showing purple or green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope (excitation wavelength: 360-370nm for purple; 460-495 nm for green).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Nonlinear refractive index parameter γ', nonlinear absorption coefficient β and third-order susceptibility χ(3) values determined under 532 and 1064 nm, 35 ps laser excitation.

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Table 2 Effective nonlinear optical parameters and third-order susceptibility χ(3) values determined under 532 and 1064 nm, 4 ns laser excitation.

Equations (5)

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T= 1 π β I 0 L eff 1+ z 2 / z 0 2 + ln[ 1+ β I 0 L eff 1+ z 2 / z 0 2 ] exp( - t 2 )dt
Δ Τ p-v =0.406 ( 1-S ) 0.25 | Δ Φ 0 |
Im χ (3) (esu)= 10 7 c 2 n 0 2 96 π 2 ω β( cm W -1 )
Re χ (3) (esu)= 10 6 c n 0 2 480 π 2 γ'( c m 2 W -1 )
α ( I ) = α 0 1 + I / I s + β R S A I

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