Abstract

The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a novel detector technology that has undergone a fast development in the last few years, owing to its single-photon resolution and ultra-fast response time. However, the typical high dark count rates of the sensor may prevent the detection of low intensity radiation fluxes. In this article, the time-gated operation with short active periods in the nanosecond range is proposed as a solution to reduce the number of cells fired due to noise and thus increase the dynamic range. The technique is aimed at application fields that function under a trigger command, such as gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
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  11. T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, B. Zwaans, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – System architecture and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Knoxville, USA, 2010), pp. 1722–1727.
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  14. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Single photon detection at 1.3 μm using a gated avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(5), 553–555 (1984).
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2013 (1)

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

D. Stoppa, D. Mosconi, L. Pancheri, L. Gonzo, “Single-photon avalanche diode CMOS sensor for time-resolved fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(9), 1084–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, S. Cova, “Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 140(1), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Single photon detection at 1.3 μm using a gated avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(5), 553–555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Akindinov, A. V.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auffray, E.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Avanzini, C.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bagliesi, M. G.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ballizany, R.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

Barrillon, P.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barrio, J.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Single photon detection at 1.3 μm using a gated avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(5), 553–555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bigongiari, G.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bisogni, M. G.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, S. E.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cabello, J.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cecchi, R.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, “A time-gated 128x128 CMOS SPAD array for on-hip fluorescence detection,” in Proceedings 2011 International Image Sensor Workshop (Hookkaido, Japan, 2011), R41.

Cova, S.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, S. Cova, “Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 140(1), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Gruyter, R.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

de La Taille, C.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Degenhardt, C.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, B. Zwaans, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – System architecture and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Knoxville, USA, 2010), pp. 1722–1727.
[CrossRef]

Del Guerra, A.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Diéguez, A.

E. Vilella, A. Diéguez, “Readout schemes for low noise single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies,” Microelectron. J.in press.

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etxebeste, A.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, J. J.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frach, T.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, B. Zwaans, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – System architecture and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Knoxville, USA, 2010), pp. 1722–1727.
[CrossRef]

Garutti, E.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gillam, J. E.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goettlich, M.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Golovin, V. M.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gonzo, L.

D. Stoppa, D. Mosconi, L. Pancheri, L. Gonzo, “Single-photon avalanche diode CMOS sensor for time-resolved fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(9), 1084–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, E. A.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillemanns, H.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jarron, P.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. Y.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lacasta, C.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lafyatis, G. P.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lecoq, P.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Single photon detection at 1.3 μm using a gated avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(5), 553–555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Llosá, G.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maestro, P.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marrocchesi, P. S.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martemianov, A. N.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, Y.

Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, “A time-gated 128x128 CMOS SPAD array for on-hip fluorescence detection,” in Proceedings 2011 International Image Sensor Workshop (Hookkaido, Japan, 2011), R41.

Meyer, T.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morsani, F.

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mosconi, D.

D. Stoppa, D. Mosconi, L. Pancheri, L. Gonzo, “Single-photon avalanche diode CMOS sensor for time-resolved fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(9), 1084–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, J. F.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pancheri, L.

D. Stoppa, D. Mosconi, L. Pancheri, L. Gonzo, “Single-photon avalanche diode CMOS sensor for time-resolved fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(9), 1084–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polozov, P. A.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polyakov, S. V.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powolny, F.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prescher, G.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, B. Zwaans, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – System architecture and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Knoxville, USA, 2010), pp. 1722–1727.
[CrossRef]

Rafecas, M.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, A.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

Schultz-Coulon, H. C.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solaz, C.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stankova, V.

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stoppa, D.

D. Stoppa, D. Mosconi, L. Pancheri, L. Gonzo, “Single-photon avalanche diode CMOS sensor for time-resolved fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(9), 1084–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tisa, S.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, S. Cova, “Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 140(1), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tosi, A.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, S. Cova, “Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 140(1), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vilella, E.

E. Vilella, A. Diéguez, “Readout schemes for low noise single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies,” Microelectron. J.in press.

Williams, M. C. S.

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Woodard, N.

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, S. Cova, “Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 140(1), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zwaans, B.

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, B. Zwaans, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – System architecture and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Knoxville, USA, 2010), pp. 1722–1727.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, “Single photon detection at 1.3 μm using a gated avalanche photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44(5), 553–555 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

D. Stoppa, D. Mosconi, L. Pancheri, L. Gonzo, “Single-photon avalanche diode CMOS sensor for time-resolved fluorescence measurements,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(9), 1084–1090 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

F. Powolny, E. Auffray, S. E. Brunner, E. Garutti, M. Goettlich, H. Hillemanns, P. Jarron, P. Lecoq, T. Meyer, H. C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, M. C. S. Williams, “Time-based readout of a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET),” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 58(3), 597–604 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A (2)

G. Llosá, P. Barrillon, J. Barrio, M. G. Bisogni, J. Cabello, A. Del Guerra, A. Etxebeste, J. E. Gillam, C. Lacasta, J. F. Oliver, M. Rafecas, C. Solaz, V. Stankova, C. de La Taille, “High performance detector head for PET and PET/MR with continuous crystals and SiPMs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 702, 3–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 387(1–2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. B (1)

M. G. Bagliesi, C. Avanzini, G. Bigongiari, R. Cecchi, M. Y. Kim, P. Maestro, P. S. Marrocchesi, F. Morsani, “A custom front-end ASIC for the readout and timing of 64 SiPM photosensors,” Nucl. Phys. B 215(1), 344–348 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Fox, N. Woodard, G. P. Lafyatis, “Characterization of cooled large-area silicon avalanche photodiodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 1951–1956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

F. Zappa, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, S. Cova, “Principles and features of single-photon avalanche diode arrays,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 140(1), 103–112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley-Interscience, 2007), Chap. 2.

W. Kucewicz, “Review of ASIC developments for SiPM signal readout,” Industria-academy matching event on SiPM and related technologies (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 2011).

E. Garutti, “Silicon photomultipliers for high energy physics detectors,” arXiv:1108.3166v1 [physics.ins-det] (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, R. de Gruyter, A. Schmitz, R. Ballizany, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – Principle of operation and intrinsic detector performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Orlando, USA, 2009), pp. 1959–1965.
[CrossRef]

T. Frach, G. Prescher, C. Degenhardt, B. Zwaans, “The digital silicon photomultiplier – System architecture and performance evaluation,” in Proceedings of IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record (Knoxville, USA, 2010), pp. 1722–1727.
[CrossRef]

Thermoelectrically cooled MPPC for photon counting – Active area 1 x 1 mm, Hamamatsu MPPC S11028 series (2013).

S. Donati, Photodetectors (Prentice Hall, 1999).

Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, “A time-gated 128x128 CMOS SPAD array for on-hip fluorescence detection,” in Proceedings 2011 International Image Sensor Workshop (Hookkaido, Japan, 2011), R41.

E. Vilella, A. Diéguez, “Readout schemes for low noise single-photon avalanche diodes fabricated in conventional HV-CMOS technologies,” Microelectron. J.in press.

C. Niclass, “Single-photon image sensors in CMOS: Picosecond resolution for three-dimensional imaging,” PhD Thesis Dissertation 4161, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Lausanne, Switzerland, 2008).

1 x 12 VCSEL Array 2.7 – 3.6 Gb/s, 8685–1402, Emcore (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micrograph of the dSiPM detector (a) and schematic diagram of one digital GAPD cell (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up used to characterize the time-gated dSiPM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective dynamic range as a function of the gated-on period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Number of cells fired by signal as a function of the optical density for different gated-on periods.

Equations (3)

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c e l l s f i r e d b y n o i s e = 1 n r e p n = 0 429 n o i s e c o u n t s c e l l n .
c e l l s f i r e d b y n o i s e = D C R t o n .
c e l l s f i r e d b y s i g n a l = 1 n r e p n = 0 429 c o u n t s c e l l n c e l l s f i r e d b y n o i s e ,

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