Abstract

We demonstrate depth-resolved materials characterization by scanning a sample through an annular beam of X-rays. We measure Bragg X-ray diffraction from a sample with a planar detector positioned centrally in a circular dark field defined by the annular beam. The diffraction maxima are optically encoded with the position of crystalline phases along this beam. Depth-resolved material phase images are recovered via tomosynthesis. We demonstrate our technique using a heterogeneous three-dimensional object comprising three different phases; cyclotetramethylene - tetranitramine, copper and nickel, distributed in a low density medium. Our technique has wide applicability in analytical imaging and is scalable with respect to both scan size and X-ray energy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. MacCabe, K. Krishnamurthy, A. Chawla, D. Marks, E. Samei, D. Brady, “Pencil beam coded aperture X-ray scatter imaging,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16310–16320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials 5(12), 937–965 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Gomi, H. Hirano, M. Nakajima, T. Umeda, “X-ray digital linear tomosynthesis imaging,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 4, 443–453 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. W. Chan, J. Rogers, S. Godber, “Combined X-ray diffraction and kinetic depth effect imaging,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6406–6413 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

O. Lazzari, S. Jacques, T. Sochi, P. Barnes, “Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1802–1807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Zhou, A. Brahme, “Development of phase-contrast X-ray imaging techniques and potential medical applications,” Phys. Med. 24(3), 129–148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Dobbins, D. J. Godfrey, “Digital X-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. F. Neilsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, H. F. Poulsen, “A three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope for deformation studies of polycrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 319–321, 179–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Almer, J.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Balaur, E.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P.

O. Lazzari, S. Jacques, T. Sochi, P. Barnes, “Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1802–1807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bleuet, P.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, D.

Brady, D. J.

Brahme, A.

S. A. Zhou, A. Brahme, “Development of phase-contrast X-ray imaging techniques and potential medical applications,” Phys. Med. 24(3), 129–148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buffiere, J. Y.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burghammer, M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cadenazzi, G. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cernik, R. J.

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J. W.

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chawla, A.

Cloetens, P.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cook, E.

E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, E. J.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dicken, A.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. W. Chan, J. Rogers, S. Godber, “Combined X-ray diffraction and kinetic depth effect imaging,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6406–6413 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dobbins, J. T.

J. T. Dobbins, D. J. Godfrey, “Digital X-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dooryhée, E.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duvauchelle, Ph.

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. W. Chan, J. Rogers, S. Godber, “Combined X-ray diffraction and kinetic depth effect imaging,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6406–6413 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fong, R.

E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forest, S.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghammraoui, B.

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godber, S.

Godfrey, D. J.

J. T. Dobbins, D. J. Godfrey, “Digital X-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldschmidt, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomi, T.

T. Gomi, H. Hirano, M. Nakajima, T. Umeda, “X-ray digital linear tomosynthesis imaging,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 4, 443–453 (2011).
[PubMed]

Greenberg, J. A.

Grigull, S.

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gundlach, C.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
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G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
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B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herbig, M.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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T. Gomi, H. Hirano, M. Nakajima, T. Umeda, “X-ray digital linear tomosynthesis imaging,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 4, 443–453 (2011).
[PubMed]

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P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
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Hönig, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
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S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Lazzari, S. Jacques, T. Sochi, P. Barnes, “Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1802–1807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakobsen, B.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, J. L.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juul Jensen, D.

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Neilsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, H. F. Poulsen, “A three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope for deformation studies of polycrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 319–321, 179–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kevan, S. D.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khor, K. H.

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, A.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, K.

Lauridsen, E. M.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Neilsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, H. F. Poulsen, “A three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope for deformation studies of polycrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 319–321, 179–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lazzari, O.

O. Lazzari, S. Jacques, T. Sochi, P. Barnes, “Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1802–1807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienert, U.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ludwig, W.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacCabe, K.

MacCabe, K. P.

Margulies, L.

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D.

Marrow, T. J.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, C.

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, S. C.

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials 5(12), 937–965 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monaco, G.

S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, M.

T. Gomi, H. Hirano, M. Nakajima, T. Umeda, “X-ray digital linear tomosynthesis imaging,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 4, 443–453 (2011).
[PubMed]

Neilsen, S. F.

S. F. Neilsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, H. F. Poulsen, “A three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope for deformation studies of polycrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 319–321, 179–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, S. F.

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Offerman, S. E.

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, U. L.

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pani, S.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantleon, W.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parks, D.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, C.

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peele, A. G.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. F.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Neilsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, H. F. Poulsen, “A three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope for deformation studies of polycrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 319–321, 179–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proudhon, H.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Putkunz, C. T.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pylkkänen, T.

S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiney, H. M.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rakete, C.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rebuffel, V.

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reischig, P.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. W. Chan, J. Rogers, S. Godber, “Combined X-ray diffraction and kinetic depth effect imaging,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6406–6413 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, K.

A. Dicken, K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. W. Chan, J. Rogers, S. Godber, “Combined X-ray diffraction and kinetic depth effect imaging,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6406–6413 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rolland du Roscoat, S.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samei, E.

Sayre, D.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S.

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schöder, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seu, K. A.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shastri, S. D.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sietsma, J.

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sochi, T.

O. Lazzari, S. Jacques, T. Sochi, P. Barnes, “Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1802–1807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, H. O.

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, H. O.

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speller, R.

E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speller, R. D.

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephan, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials 5(12), 937–965 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabary, J.

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tornai, M. P.

Umeda, T.

T. Gomi, H. Hirano, M. Nakajima, T. Umeda, “X-ray digital linear tomosynthesis imaging,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 4, 443–453 (2011).
[PubMed]

van der Zwaag, S.

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, N. H.

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verbeni, R.

S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verger, L.

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vine, D. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Walter, P.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welcomme, E.

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitehead, L. W.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials 5(12), 937–965 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D.

E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S. A.

S. A. Zhou, A. Brahme, “Development of phase-contrast X-ray imaging techniques and potential medical applications,” Phys. Med. 24(3), 129–148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

O. Lazzari, S. Jacques, T. Sochi, P. Barnes, “Reconstructive colour X-ray diffraction imaging--a novel TEDDI imaging method,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(9), 1802–1807 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Evans, K. Rogers, J. Chan, J. Rogers, A. Dicken, “High intensity X-ray diffraction in transmission mode employing an analog of Poisson’s spot,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 204101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Radiat. Isot. (3)

S. Pani, E. J. Cook, J. A. Horrocks, J. L. Jones, R. D. Speller, “Characterization of breast tissue using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction computed tomography,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 68(10), 1980–1987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Harding, “X-ray diffraction imaging--a multi-generational perspective,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 67(2), 287–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cook, R. Fong, J. Horrocks, D. Wilkinson, R. Speller, “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction as a means to identify illicit materials: a preliminary optimisation study,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 65(8), 959–967 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Cryst. (1)

K. Rogers, P. Evans, J. Rogers, J. Chan, A. Dicken, “Focal construct geometry – a novel approach to the acquisition of diffraction data,” J. Appl. Cryst. 43(2), 264–268 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. (1)

T. Gomi, H. Hirano, M. Nakajima, T. Umeda, “X-ray digital linear tomosynthesis imaging,” J. Biomed. Sci. Eng. 4, 443–453 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, A. Goldschmidt, S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, C. Rakete, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, C. G. Schroer, “Non-destructive and quantitative imaging of a nano-structured microchip by ptychographic hard X-ray scanning microscopy,” J. Microsc. 241(1), 9–12 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

R. J. Cernik, K. H. Khor, C. Hansson, “X-ray colour imaging,” J. R. Soc. Interface 5(21), 477–481 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (2)

S. F. Neilsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, H. F. Poulsen, “A three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscope for deformation studies of polycrystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 319–321, 179–181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Ludwig, A. King, P. Reischig, M. Herbig, E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, H. Proudhon, S. Forest, P. Cloetens, S. Rolland du Roscoat, J. Y. Buffiere, T. J. Marrow, H. F. Poulsen, “New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre length scale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 524(1-2), 69–76 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

S. C. Mayo, A. W. Stevenson, S. W. Wilkins, “In-line phase-contrast X-ray imaging and tomography for materials science,” Materials 5(12), 937–965 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. Huotari, T. Pylkkänen, R. Verbeni, G. Monaco, K. Hämäläinen, “Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 489–493 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bleuet, E. Welcomme, E. Dooryhée, J. Susini, J. L. Hodeau, P. Walter, “Probing the structure of heterogeneous diluted materials by diffraction tomography,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 468–472 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

H. N. Chapman, K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, S. D. Kevan, “Lensless X-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, L. W. Whitehead, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, G. A. Cadenazzi, C. A. Henderson, K. A. Nugent, E. Balaur, C. T. Putkunz, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, I. McNulty, “Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 420–424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-size non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. (1)

B. Ghammraoui, V. Rebuffel, J. Tabary, C. Paulus, L. Verger, Ph. Duvauchelle, “Effect of grain size on stability of X-ray diffraction patterns used for threat detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 683, 1–7 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. (1)

S. E. Offerman, N. H. van Dijk, J. Sietsma, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, S. Grigull, H. F. Poulsen, S. van der Zwaag, “Phase transformations in steel studied by 3DXRD microscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 246(1), 194–200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Med. (1)

S. A. Zhou, A. Brahme, “Development of phase-contrast X-ray imaging techniques and potential medical applications,” Phys. Med. 24(3), 129–148 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. T. Dobbins, D. J. Godfrey, “Digital X-ray tomosynthesis: current state of the art and clinical potential,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(19), R65–R106 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. Jakobsen, H. F. Poulsen, U. Lienert, J. Almer, S. D. Shastri, H. O. Sørensen, C. Gundlach, W. Pantleon, “Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation,” Science 312(5775), 889–892 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scr. Mater. (3)

E. M. Lauridsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, L. Margulies, H. F. Poulsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive characterization of recrystallization kinetics using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Scr. Mater. 55(1), 51–56 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Fu, H. F. Poulsen, S. Schmidt, S. F. Nielsen, E. M. Lauridsen, D. Juul Jensen, “Non-destructive mapping of grains in three dimensions,” Scr. Mater. 49(11), 1093–1096 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmidt, U. L. Olsen, H. F. Poulsen, H. O. Sorensen, E. M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, C. Maurice, D. Juul Jensen, “Direct observation of 3-D grain growth in Al-0.1% Mn,” Scr. Mater. 59(5), 491–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. J. Brady, Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy (Optical Society of America. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The translational scan of the annular X-ray beam is represented with the aid of the coplanar grid formed by the relative positions of the point X-ray source, the detection plane formed by coplanar overlapping detector positions (at each corresponding point source location) and a potential focal plane position. All three planes are parallel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The annular X-ray beam is defined by a half opening angle ϕ. The separation between the point X-ray source and the detection plane is L. The mean diameter of the annular beam at the detection plane is 2R. The distance along the Z-axis to a circular specimen path is given by Z. The position of a Debye cone, of half opening angle 2θ , along a caustic is given by polar coordinates ( r,γ ) . The pole is the piercing point of the principal axis on the detection plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The local “snapshot detector” polar coordinate system is aligned at the (0,0,0) “point source” plane, see Fig. 1, in the global Cartesian coordinate system. Therefore, the pole is coincident at the point source. The pole position for each successive caustic snapshot image M m,n ( i p,q ) along the X-axis and the Y-axis is given by nδx and mδy , respectively. Where n and m are the total number of scan steps and δx and δy are the step sizes, respectively. M m,n ( i p,q ) is comprised of ( pq ) pixel intensity values i, which is determined by the native “staring” resolution of the detector. The reconstructed perspective image M r,γ ( i m,n ) is comprised of ( mn ) pixel vales i obtained from the detector element at ( r,γ ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A sequence of perspective images M r ( i m,n ) along a caustic path ( r,γ ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A reconstructed caustic is formed by considering all annular beam rays (originating from different point source locations during the scan) incident on a sample at Z. The separation between conjugate points along the caustic yields depth dependent parallax ( P r P r ) where P r and P r are measured with respect to reference locations at r , respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic depicting the full optical path of the experiment arrangement including the X-ray generator/point source, annular collimator, heterogeneous object under inspection and a CCD camera fitted with a ‘Gadox’ conversion screen. (b) Example of the diffracted caustic imagery.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Successive stages in the diffraction tomosynthesis of an optical section comprising the ( 1 ¯ 02 ) HMX Bragg maxima. (a) Stack of snapshot caustic images M m,n ( i p,q ) collected over a corresponding ( mn ) grid of point source locations. (b) Pixels collected at ( r,γ ) are transformed into ( pq ) perspective images M p,q ( i m,n ) . Optical sections T Z for different S r,γ(2θ) distances (indicated by the green color circles) corresponding to axial focal planes positioned at; (c) the X-ray point source plane at Z = 0 , (d) the HMX plane at Z = 169.6 mm and, (e) a hypothetical plane at Z = 339.3 mm i.e. beyond the detector plane at Z = 272 mm .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A triplet of optical sections each for different HMX Bragg maxima with corresponding r and 2θ values. The corresponding Bragg plane for each optical section is; (a) ( 020 ) plane, (b) ( 1 ¯ 02 ) plane and, (c) ( 120 ) plane. A total number of N=360 perspective images were focused via tomosynthesis.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical sections showing different material phases with corresponding r, S and Z values. The corresponding Bragg plane and (true Zvalue) for each optical section are (a) ( 1 ¯ 02 ) plane of HMX ( Z=170 mm ), (b) ( 111 ) plane of copper ( Z=216 mm ) (c) ( 111 ) plane of nickel ( Z=239 mm ). A total number of N=360 perspective images were focused via tomosynthesis. Calculated linear distances are indicated on each image and listed here with their (true) values (a) 12.0 mm (12.0 mm) , (b) 21.0 mm (21.0 mm) , 22.5 mm (22.5 mm) and, (c) 27.9 mm (28.0 mm) , 22.5 mm (22.5 mm) .

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X=mδx+cosγ
Y=nδy+rsinγ
Z (2θ) =L( 2R( P r P r ) 2tanϕ ).
S r,γ(2θ) =±| R( LZ )tanϕ |.
T Z(r) = 1 N γ=0 N M r,γ .
δ T Z = δ P r 2tanϕ .
2θ=ϕ+ tan 1 ( ( R±r LZ )tanϕ ).
d= λ 2sin[ 1 2 ( ϕ+ tan 1 ( ( R±r LZ )tanϕ ) ) ] .

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