Abstract

A multilayer-based fiber optic sensor enabling simultaneous measurement of humidity and temperature is proposed and demonstrated. The sensitive elements were multilayer coatings consisting of nano-porous TiO2 and SiO2 films, which were deposited on fiber end-face to form a Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter structure. Relative-humidity (RH) sensing is correlated with the shift of interference fringe due to the change of effective refractive index of porous coatings when exposed to different RH environments. The sensor is sealed in a glass tube in case of temperature measurement. Experimental results show that the average sensitivity are 0.43nm/%RH and 0.63nm/°C respectively when environmental RH changes from 1.8%RH to 74.7%RH and temperature changes from 21.4°C to 38.8°C. The proposed sensors present high repeatability, and especially highly sensitive to lower moisture measure.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).
  2. J. Dai, M. Yang, Y. Chen, K. Cao, H. Liao, P. Zhang, “Side-polished fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensor with WO3-Pd composite film as sensing materials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6141–6148 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).
  4. L. Alwis, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and performance evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol/polyimide coated optical fibre grating-based humidity sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 025002 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. http://www.public.iastate.edu/~bkh/teaching/505/arden_buck_sat.pdf
  10. Z. Li, R. Zhang, “Study on a gas sensor based on the optical character of porous silicon microcavities,” Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators 20, 54–57 (2007).
  11. S. J. Regg, K. S. W. Sing, and M. Adsorption, Surface Area and Porosity, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1982).
  12. E. V. Astrova, V. A. Tolmachev, “Effective refractive index and composition of oxidized porous silicon films,” J Materials Science and Engineering 69-70(60), 142–148 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. W. Yeow and J. P. M. She, “Capacitive humidity sensing using carbon nanotube enabled capillary condensation,” 5th IEEE Conference on Sensors 439–443 (IEEE, 2006).
  14. K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Wolfe, J. Singh, “Titanium carbide coatings deposited by reactive ion beam-assisted, electron beam–physical vapor deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 124(2-3), 142–153 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

L. Alwis, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and performance evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol/polyimide coated optical fibre grating-based humidity sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 025002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, M. Yang, Y. Chen, K. Cao, H. Liao, P. Zhang, “Side-polished fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensor with WO3-Pd composite film as sensing materials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6141–6148 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).

2008 (1)

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Z. Li, R. Zhang, “Study on a gas sensor based on the optical character of porous silicon microcavities,” Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators 20, 54–57 (2007).

2000 (2)

E. V. Astrova, V. A. Tolmachev, “Effective refractive index and composition of oxidized porous silicon films,” J Materials Science and Engineering 69-70(60), 142–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Wolfe, J. Singh, “Titanium carbide coatings deposited by reactive ion beam-assisted, electron beam–physical vapor deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 124(2-3), 142–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aiyer, R. C.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akita, S.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alwis, L.

L. Alwis, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and performance evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol/polyimide coated optical fibre grating-based humidity sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 025002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amalnerkar, D.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astrova, E. V.

E. V. Astrova, V. A. Tolmachev, “Effective refractive index and composition of oxidized porous silicon films,” J Materials Science and Engineering 69-70(60), 142–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, K.

Chan, C. C.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Dai, J.

Dong, X.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuke, M.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

L. Alwis, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and performance evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol/polyimide coated optical fibre grating-based humidity sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 025002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawaldar, R.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).

Kou, T.

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, R. Zhang, “Study on a gas sensor based on the optical character of porous silicon microcavities,” Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators 20, 54–57 (2007).

Liao, H.

Liu, D.

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).

Liu, Y.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seki, A.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

D. Wolfe, J. Singh, “Titanium carbide coatings deposited by reactive ion beam-assisted, electron beam–physical vapor deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 124(2-3), 142–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

L. Alwis, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and performance evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol/polyimide coated optical fibre grating-based humidity sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 025002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).

Tolmachev, V. A.

E. V. Astrova, V. A. Tolmachev, “Effective refractive index and composition of oxidized porous silicon films,” J Materials Science and Engineering 69-70(60), 142–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.

M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).

Vijayan, A.

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D.

D. Wolfe, J. Singh, “Titanium carbide coatings deposited by reactive ion beam-assisted, electron beam–physical vapor deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 124(2-3), 142–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, L.

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

J. Dai, M. Yang, Y. Chen, K. Cao, H. Liao, P. Zhang, “Side-polished fiber Bragg grating hydrogen sensor with WO3-Pd composite film as sensing materials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6141–6148 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).

M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).

Zhang, D.

M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).

M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).

Zhang, P.

Zhang, R.

Z. Li, R. Zhang, “Study on a gas sensor based on the optical character of porous silicon microcavities,” Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators 20, 54–57 (2007).

Zhao, C. L.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators (1)

Z. Li, R. Zhang, “Study on a gas sensor based on the optical character of porous silicon microcavities,” Chinese Journal of Sensors and Actuators 20, 54–57 (2007).

J Materials Science and Engineering (1)

E. V. Astrova, V. A. Tolmachev, “Effective refractive index and composition of oxidized porous silicon films,” J Materials Science and Engineering 69-70(60), 142–148 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Alwis, T. Sun, K. T. V. Grattan, “Design and performance evaluation of polyvinyl alcohol/polyimide coated optical fibre grating-based humidity sensors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84(2), 025002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

L. Xia, L. Li, W. Li, T. Kou, D. Liu, “Novel optical fiber humidity sensor based on a no-core fiber structure,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 190, 1–5 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (4)

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Vijayan, M. Fuke, R. Hawaldar, M. Kulkarni, D. Amalnerkar, R. C. Aiyer, “Optical fibre based humidity sensor using Co-polyaniline clad,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 129(1), 106–112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Yang, Y. Sun, D. Zhang, D. Jiang, “Using Pd/WO3 composite thin films as sensing materials for optical fiber hydrogen sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 143, 750–753 (2010).

M. Yang, H. Liu, D. Zhang, X. Tong, “Hydrogen sensing performance comparison of Pd layer and Pd/WO3 composite thin film coated on side-polished single-and multimode fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 149, 161–164 (2010).

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

D. Wolfe, J. Singh, “Titanium carbide coatings deposited by reactive ion beam-assisted, electron beam–physical vapor deposition,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 124(2-3), 142–153 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. T. W. Yeow and J. P. M. She, “Capacitive humidity sensing using carbon nanotube enabled capillary condensation,” 5th IEEE Conference on Sensors 439–443 (IEEE, 2006).

S. J. Regg, K. S. W. Sing, and M. Adsorption, Surface Area and Porosity, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 1982).

http://www.public.iastate.edu/~bkh/teaching/505/arden_buck_sat.pdf

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the TiO2/SiO2/TiO2 multilayer sensor for relative-humidity measurement (left: unsealed probe) and temperature measurement (right: sealed probe).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated spectral drift of the multilayer sensor with 1% and 2% effective refractive index change (left) and calculated relative-humidity shift with temperature change in a sealed system (right)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental configuration for simultaneous measurement of humidity and temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the packed temperature sensor (left) and Scanning electron microscope image of the sensing coating (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflection spectra of the porous films sensor in different RH levels(left) and the Shift of characteristic wavelength to different RH levels(right)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sensitivity to temperature of the proposed unsealed humidity senor and characteristic dip wavelength of the sealed temperature sensing probe under different relative humidity levels

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflection spectra of the sealed multilayer sensor at different temperature levels (left) and the shift of characteristic wavelength with different temperature (right)

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Repeatability tests of the unsealed relative-humidity sensor and the sealed temperature sensor.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time response of the unsealed relative-humidity sensor (left) and the shift of characteristic wavelength over time for 12 hours (right), when the unsealed relative-humidity sensor was held at 41%RH and the sealed temperature was held at 26°C.

Equations (2)

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e(T)=(1.0007+3.46×1 0 -6 P)×(6.1121) e ( 17.502T 240.97+T )
r K = 2Mγcosθ RρT×lnH

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