Abstract

A compact versatile photoacoustic (PA) sensor for trace gas detection is reported. The sensor is based on an integrating sphere as the PA absorption cell with an organ pipe tube attached to increase the sensitivity of the PA sensor. The versatility and enhancement of the sensitivity of the PA signal is investigated by monitoring specific ro-vibrational lines of CO2 in the 2 μm wavelength region and of NO2 in the 405 nm region. The measured enhancement factor of the PA signal exceeds 1200, which is due to the acoustic resonance of the tube and the absorption enhancement of the integrating sphere relatively to a non-resonant single pass cell. It is observed that the background absorption signals are highly attenuated due to the thermal conduction and diffusion effects in the polytetrafluoroethylene cell walls. This demonstrates that careful choice of cell wall materials can be highly beneficial to the sensitivity of the PA sensor. These properties makes the sensor suitable for various practical sensor applications in the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region, including climate, environmental and industrial monitoring.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Sidorov, S. V. Miridonov, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, “Estimation of light penetration depth in turbid media using laser speckles,” Opt. Express, 20(13), 13692–13701 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. Saarela, T. Sorvajärvi, T. Laurila, J. Toivonen, “Phase-sensitive method for background-compensated photoacoustic detection of NO2 using high-power LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, 725–732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36, 481–483 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agent and explosives,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153(1), 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2m diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, “Sub-ppm multi-gas photoacoustic sensor,” Spectrochim. Acta A 63, 899–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Miklos, S. C. Pei, A. H. Kung, “Multipass acoustically open photoacoustic detector for trace gas measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2529–2534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Rey, D. Marinov, D. Vogler, M. Sigrist, “Investigation and optimisation of a multipass resonant photoacoustic cell at high absorption levels,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 261–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Hawe, E. Lewis, C. Fitzpatrick, “Hazardous gas detection with an integrating sphere in the near-infrared, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 15, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Miklos, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1986 (1)

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1964 (1)

J. N. Pitts, J. H. Sharp, S. I. Chan, “Effects of wavelength and temperature on primary processes in the photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and a spectroscopic-photochemical determination of the dissociation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3655–3662 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1881 (1)

A. G. Bell, “The production of sound by radiant energy,” Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).
[CrossRef]

Bachir, I. H.

Barreiro, N.

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bartlome, R.

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, “The production of sound by radiant energy,” Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).
[CrossRef]

Bernhardt, R.

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Besson, J.-P.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, “Sub-ppm multi-gas photoacoustic sensor,” Spectrochim. Acta A 63, 899–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bird, R. B.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (John Wiley, 1976).

Bonetti, Y.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bozoki, Z.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chambers, P.

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S. I.

J. N. Pitts, J. H. Sharp, S. I. Chan, “Effects of wavelength and temperature on primary processes in the photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and a spectroscopic-photochemical determination of the dissociation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3655–3662 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Cotti, G.

F. M. J. Harren, G. Cotti, J. Oomens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy in trace gas monitoring,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (John Wiley, 2000).

Demtroder, W.

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, 3 (Springer, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Destombes, J.-L.

Dooly, G.

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elterman, P.

Emmenegger, L.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fitzpatrick, C.

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Hawe, E. Lewis, C. Fitzpatrick, “Hazardous gas detection with an integrating sphere in the near-infrared, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 15, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fonsen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

Gonzlez, M. G.

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F.

F. Harren, J. Reuss, Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, G. L. Trigg, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 1979).

Harren, F. M. J.

F. M. J. Harren, G. Cotti, J. Oomens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy in trace gas monitoring,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (John Wiley, 2000).

Hawe, E.

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Hawe, E. Lewis, C. Fitzpatrick, “Hazardous gas detection with an integrating sphere in the near-infrared, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 15, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, J.

Kamshilin, A. A.

Kauppinen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koskinen, V.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2m diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. H.

Laurila, T.

J. Saarela, T. Sorvajärvi, T. Laurila, J. Toivonen, “Phase-sensitive method for background-compensated photoacoustic detection of NO2 using high-power LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, 725–732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2m diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, E.

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Hawe, E. Lewis, C. Fitzpatrick, “Hazardous gas detection with an integrating sphere in the near-infrared, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 15, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lightfoot, E. N.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (John Wiley, 1976).

Liu, K.

Looser, H.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Manninen, A.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinov, D.

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rey, D. Marinov, D. Vogler, M. Sigrist, “Investigation and optimisation of a multipass resonant photoacoustic cell at high absorption levels,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 261–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Masiyano, D.

Michaelian, K. H.

K. H. Michaelian, Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopy, Chemical Analysis Series, J. D. Winefordner, ed. (John Wiley, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, A.

A. Miklos, S. C. Pei, A. H. Kung, “Multipass acoustically open photoacoustic detector for trace gas measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 2529–2534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Miklos, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miridonov, S. V.

Nägele, M.

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nippolainen, E.

Oomens, J.

F. M. J. Harren, G. Cotti, J. Oomens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy in trace gas monitoring,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (John Wiley, 2000).

Patel, C.

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agent and explosives,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153(1), 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. C.

Peuriot, A.

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. N.

J. N. Pitts, J. H. Sharp, S. I. Chan, “Effects of wavelength and temperature on primary processes in the photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and a spectroscopic-photochemical determination of the dissociation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3655–3662 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Pushkarsky, M.

Reuss, J.

F. Harren, J. Reuss, Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, G. L. Trigg, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 1979).

Rey, J.

J. Rey, D. Marinov, D. Vogler, M. Sigrist, “Investigation and optimisation of a multipass resonant photoacoustic cell at high absorption levels,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 261–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rey, J. M.

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (John Wiley, 1980).

Roth, K.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saarela, J.

J. Saarela, T. Sorvajärvi, T. Laurila, J. Toivonen, “Phase-sensitive method for background-compensated photoacoustic detection of NO2 using high-power LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, 725–732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, J.

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santiago, G.

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, G. D.

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schilt, S.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, “Sub-ppm multi-gas photoacoustic sensor,” Spectrochim. Acta A 63, 899–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, J. H.

J. N. Pitts, J. H. Sharp, S. I. Chan, “Effects of wavelength and temperature on primary processes in the photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and a spectroscopic-photochemical determination of the dissociation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3655–3662 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, I. S.

Sigrist, M.

J. Rey, D. Marinov, D. Vogler, M. Sigrist, “Investigation and optimisation of a multipass resonant photoacoustic cell at high absorption levels,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 261–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, M. W.

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (John Wiley, 1994).

Slezak, V.

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slezak, V. B.

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorvajarvi, T.

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorvajärvi, T.

J. Saarela, T. Sorvajärvi, T. Laurila, J. Toivonen, “Phase-sensitive method for background-compensated photoacoustic detection of NO2 using high-power LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, 725–732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. E.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (John Wiley, 1976).

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

Tatam, R. P.

te Lintel Hekkert, S.

F. M. J. Harren, G. Cotti, J. Oomens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy in trace gas monitoring,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (John Wiley, 2000).

Thevenaz, L.

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thévenaz, L.

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, “Sub-ppm multi-gas photoacoustic sensor,” Spectrochim. Acta A 63, 899–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2m diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toivonen, J.

J. Saarela, T. Sorvajärvi, T. Laurila, J. Toivonen, “Phase-sensitive method for background-compensated photoacoustic detection of NO2 using high-power LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, 725–732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tranchart, S.

Tuzson, B.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vallespi, A.

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, D.

J. Rey, D. Marinov, D. Vogler, M. Sigrist, “Investigation and optimisation of a multipass resonant photoacoustic cell at high absorption levels,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 261–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, D. E.

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, H.

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webber, M.

Wysocki, G.

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2m diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

R. Lewicki, G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, “Carbon dioxide and ammonia detection using 2m diode laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 157–162 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Rey, D. Marinov, D. Vogler, M. Sigrist, “Investigation and optimisation of a multipass resonant photoacoustic cell at high absorption levels,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 261–266 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nägele, M. W. Sigrist, “Mobile laser spectrometer with novel resonant multipass photoacoustic cell for trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 895–901 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, R. Bartlome, D. Marinov, J. M. Rey, D. E. Vogler, H. Wächter, “Trace gas monitoring with infrared laser-based detection schemes,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 289–300 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109(3), 461–466 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

N. Barreiro, A. Vallespi, A. Peuriot, V. Slezak, G. Santiago, “Quenching effects on pulsed photoacoustic signals in NO2-air samples,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 99, 591–597 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (1)

C. K. N. Patel, “Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical warfare agent and explosives,” Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 153(1), 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

S. Schilt, L. Thevenaz, “Wavelength modulation photoacoustic spectroscopy: Theoretical description and experimental results,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 48, 154–162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. N. Pitts, J. H. Sharp, S. I. Chan, “Effects of wavelength and temperature on primary processes in the photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and a spectroscopic-photochemical determination of the dissociation energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 40, 3655–3662 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

E. Hawe, E. Lewis, C. Fitzpatrick, “Hazardous gas detection with an integrating sphere in the near-infrared, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 15, 250–255 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

J. Saarela, T. Sorvajärvi, T. Laurila, J. Toivonen, “Phase-sensitive method for background-compensated photoacoustic detection of NO2 using high-power LEDs,” Opt. Express 19, 725–732 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Sidorov, S. V. Miridonov, E. Nippolainen, A. A. Kamshilin, “Estimation of light penetration depth in turbid media using laser speckles,” Opt. Express, 20(13), 13692–13701 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Mag. (1)

A. G. Bell, “The production of sound by radiant energy,” Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Hawe, G. Dooly, C. Fitzpatrick, E. Lewis, P. Chambers, “UV based pollutant quantification in automotive exhausts,” Proc. SPIE 6198, 619807 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. C. Tam, “Applications of photoacoustic sensing techniques,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381–431 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. Miklos, P. Hess, Z. Bozoki, “Application of acoustic resonators in photoacoustic trace gas analysis and metrology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937–1955 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Xu, L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

R. Bernhardt, G. D. Santiago, V. B. Slezak, A. Peuriot, M. G. Gonzlez, “Differential, LED-excited, resonant NO2 photoacoustic system,” Sens. Actuators B 150, 513–516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

J. Saarela, J. Sand, T. Sorvajarvi, A. Manninen, J. Toivonen, “Transversely excited multipass photoacoustic cell using electromechanical film as microphone,” Sensors 10, 5294–5307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

J.-P. Besson, S. Schilt, L. Thévenaz, “Sub-ppm multi-gas photoacoustic sensor,” Spectrochim. Acta A 63, 899–904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vibr. Spectrosc. (1)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, J. Kauppinen, “Progress in cantilever enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Vibr. Spectrosc. 48(1), 16–21 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. W. Sigrist, Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques (John Wiley, 1994).

F. M. J. Harren, G. Cotti, J. Oomens, S. te Lintel Hekkert, “Photoacoustic spectroscopy in trace gas monitoring,” in Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (John Wiley, 2000).

K. H. Michaelian, Photoacoustic Infrared Spectroscopy, Chemical Analysis Series, J. D. Winefordner, ed. (John Wiley, 2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (John Wiley, 1980).

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, 3 (Springer, 2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Harren, J. Reuss, Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, G. L. Trigg, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 1979).

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (John Wiley, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulations of the acoustic coupled system. (a) Acoustics pressure response as a function of frequency for the organ pipe tube. (b) Acoustics pressure response as a function of frequency for the sphere. The figure shows the 3D simulation of first three eigenfrequencies of the coupled sphere and cylindrical acoustic resonator measured at end of the tube. i) 743 Hz, ii) 2229 Hz and iii) 3716 Hz. The blue and red colors indicate the maximum and minimum acoustic pressure, with opposite phase. The white color is zero acoustic pressure. The corresponding experimental data is shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The experimental setup for CO2 monitoring consist of a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser emitting radiation at 2.004 μm, an integrating sphere with a diameter of 50.8 mm and two microphones attached to the integrating sphere. One directly on the integrating sphere and one attached via the 90 mm organ tube pipe. DAQ is a data acquisition card. (b) The setup for measuring NO2 include a 405 nm LED source and a lock-in amplifier connected to a DAQ card.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enhancement factors of the integrating sphere based PA sensor for (a) CO2 and (b) NO2. The black curves are the data recorded by Mic2 at the end of the organ pipe while the red curves are the data recorded by Mic1, situated inside the sphere. The enhancement factors for the two cases are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data for measurement on a 300 ppm NO2 mixture, SNR = 22 dB. (a) Sphere microphone PA signal (black curve) and background signal (red curve). (b) Tube microphone PA signal (black curve) and background signal (red curve) The eigenresonances are found at approximately 740 Hz and 2500 Hz for the tube microphone. (c) Monitoring of a 300 ppm NO2 concentration over 3.5 minutes resulting in a standard deviation of 0.9 ppm.

Equations (2)

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S P A = S m P F α ,
M = ρ 0 1 ρ ¯ .

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