Abstract

A high-finesse broadband optical cavity has been developed for use in the ultraviolet and visible region using Brewster-angle calcium fluoride (CaF2) prism retroreflectors. Prior to prism construction, optical loss measurements of CaF2 windows were performed using cavity ring-down spectroscopy at 250 nm. Total optical loss showed high spatial correlation with crystal birefringence, which was partially mitigated by orienting the <111> crystal axis with the laser beam. Prism reflectivity was measured using cavity ring-down spectroscopy and found to be 99.77% at 250 nm and 99.96% at 500 nm, allowing for relatively high-finesse operation over hundreds of nm bandwidth with a single cavity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (1)

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Logunov, S. Kuchinsky, “Experimental and theoretical study of bulk light scattering in CaF2 monocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. OKeefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Bennett, J. M.

Burnett, J. H.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burnett, “Stress-optical coefficients of 157 nm materials,” in SEMATECH 157nm Technical Data Review (2011).

Busch, K.

K. Busch, M. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Busch, M.

K. Busch, M. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, W. B. Yan, “Prism-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Broadband and ultrahigh reflectivity,” in 62nd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2007).

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. OKeefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dudek, J.

G. Engel, W. B. Yan, J. Dudek, K. K. Lehmann, P. Rabinowitz, “Ring down spectroscopy with a Brewster’s angle prism resonator,” in Laser Spectroscopy XIV International Conference, R. Blatt, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 314–315.

Elson, J. M.

Engel, G.

G. Engel, W. B. Yan, J. Dudek, K. K. Lehmann, P. Rabinowitz, “Ring down spectroscopy with a Brewster’s angle prism resonator,” in Laser Spectroscopy XIV International Conference, R. Blatt, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 314–315.

Faïn, X.

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hudgens, J. W.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huie, R. E.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. S.

Kuchinsky, S.

S. Logunov, S. Kuchinsky, “Experimental and theoretical study of bulk light scattering in CaF2 monocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

Levine, Z. H.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Logunov, S.

S. Logunov, S. Kuchinsky, “Experimental and theoretical study of bulk light scattering in CaF2 monocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C.

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moosmüller, H.

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Moosmüller, “Brewster’s angle porro prism: A different use for a pellin-broca prism,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8140–8142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naus, H.

Obrist, D.

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

OKeefe, A.

A. OKeefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, A.

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pipino, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rabinowitz, P.

K. K. Lehmann, P. S. Johnston, P. Rabinowitz, “Brewster angle prism retroreflectors for cavity enhanced spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2966–2978 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Engel, W. B. Yan, J. Dudek, K. K. Lehmann, P. Rabinowitz, “Ring down spectroscopy with a Brewster’s angle prism resonator,” in Laser Spectroscopy XIV International Conference, R. Blatt, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 314–315.

Rahn, J. P.

Shirley, E. L.

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

Ubachs, W.

Yan, W. B.

H. Chen, W. B. Yan, “Prism-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Broadband and ultrahigh reflectivity,” in 62nd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2007).

G. Engel, W. B. Yan, J. Dudek, K. K. Lehmann, P. Rabinowitz, “Ring down spectroscopy with a Brewster’s angle prism resonator,” in Laser Spectroscopy XIV International Conference, R. Blatt, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 314–315.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

A. Pierce, D. Obrist, H. Moosmüller, X. Faïn, C. Moore, “Cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor development for high-time-resolution measurements of gaseous elemental mercury in ambient air,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6, 1477–1489 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Logunov, S. Kuchinsky, “Experimental and theoretical study of bulk light scattering in CaF2 monocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. H. Burnett, Z. H. Levine, E. L. Shirley, “Intrinsic birefringence in calcium fluoride and barium fluoride,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 241102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, R. E. Huie, “Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a total-internal-reflection minicavity,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978–2989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. OKeefe, D. A. G. Deacon, “Cavity ring-down optical spectrometer for absorption measurements using pulsed laser sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544–2551 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

K. Busch, M. Busch, Cavity-Ringdown Spectroscopy, Vol. 720 of ACS Symposium Series (Oxford University, 1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Engeln, eds., Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

G. Gagliardi, H. Loock, eds., Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy and Sensing, Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2014).
[CrossRef]

“Tiger optics,” www.tigeroptics.com . Last access: 1 January, 2014.

H. Chen, W. B. Yan, “Prism-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy: Broadband and ultrahigh reflectivity,” in 62nd International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2007).

G. Engel, W. B. Yan, J. Dudek, K. K. Lehmann, P. Rabinowitz, “Ring down spectroscopy with a Brewster’s angle prism resonator,” in Laser Spectroscopy XIV International Conference, R. Blatt, ed. (World Scientific, 1999), pp. 314–315.

J. H. Burnett, “Stress-optical coefficients of 157 nm materials,” in SEMATECH 157nm Technical Data Review (2011).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).

“Errata list for lasers,” http://budker.berkeley.edu/208b/laserserr.pdf . Last access: 4 April, 2014.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ray-tracing schematic of prism retroreflector cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of prism retroreflector showing orientation of the <111> crystal axes (dashed blue) to the optical axis (solid red). Note that all vectors shown are in the plane of the image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of CRDS optical-loss measurement apparatus. AOM: acousto-optic modulator, MM: mode-match telescope, M: steering mirror, P: linear polarizer, HR: high reflectivity mirror, PMT: photomultiplier tube, CaF2: test window.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of crossed polarizer measurement apparatus. AOM: acousto-optic modulator, MM: mode-match telescope, M: steering mirror, P: linear polarizer, HR: high reflectivity mirror, PMT: photomultiplier tube, Pol-P: P-oriented polarizer, Pol-S: S-oriented polarizer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical loss from CRDS (left) and the birefringence measured from crossed polarizers (right) at 250 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dimensions of the CaF2 prism.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical schematic for cw-CRDS test of CaF2 prisms. AOM:acousto-optic modulator MM:mode-match telescope CL1:cylindrical lens 1, oriented to focus vertically CL2:cylindrical lens 2, oriented to focus horizontally POL:linear polarizer M:steering mirror PMT:photomultiplier tube

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