Abstract

A hybrid structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets/ZnO nanorods was prepared and its photoluminescence intensity ratio between the UV and defect emission was enhanced up to 14 times. By controlling the reduction degree of rGO on the surface of ZnO nanorods, the UV emission was tuned with the introduction of localized surface plasmons resonance of rGO sheets. The suppression of the defect emission was ascribed to the charge transfer and decreased with the distance between the rGO and ZnO nanorods.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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2013 (3)

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S. I. Khondaker, S. Seal, “Graphene based materials: Past, present and future,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56(8), 1178–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

K. S. Subrahmanyam, P. Kumar, A. Nag, C. N. R. Rao, “Blue light emitting graphene-based materials and their use in generating white light,” Solid State Commun. 150(37-38), 1774–1777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

Y. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, L. K. Pan, T. Lu, Z. Sun, “Capacitive behavior of graphene–ZnO composite film for supercapacitors,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 634(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Cote, F. Kim, J. X. Huang, “Langmuir-blodgett assembly of graphite oxide single layers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 1043–1049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Williams, P. V. Kamat, “Graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites: excited-state interactions between ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide,” Langmuir 25(24), 13869–13873 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chen, G. Z. Xing, Z. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, T. Wu, “Tailoring the photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires using Au nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(43), 435711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 17(17), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. W. Lai, J. An, H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Lin, H. P. Chen, H. C. Liao, S. Y. Chen, “Enhanced luminescent and electrical properties of hydrogen-plasma ZnO nanorods grown on wafer-scale flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, “Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3141–3147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

W. S. Hummers, R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Abdala, A. A.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Abiyasa, A. P.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

Adamson, D. H.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, K. J.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksay, I. A.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alves, H.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

C. W. Lai, J. An, H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bando, Y.

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozoklu, G.

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, “Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3141–3147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, “Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3141–3147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. A.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. P.

C. C. Lin, H. P. Chen, H. C. Liao, S. Y. Chen, “Enhanced luminescent and electrical properties of hydrogen-plasma ZnO nanorods grown on wafer-scale flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

T. Chen, G. Z. Xing, Z. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, T. Wu, “Tailoring the photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires using Au nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(43), 435711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Z.

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I. S.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, N. F.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. L.

P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Y.

C. C. Lin, H. P. Chen, H. C. Liao, S. Y. Chen, “Enhanced luminescent and electrical properties of hydrogen-plasma ZnO nanorods grown on wafer-scale flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, G. Z. Xing, Z. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, T. Wu, “Tailoring the photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires using Au nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(43), 435711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Q.

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 17(17), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. L.

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 17(17), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, P. H.

P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. C.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. S.

T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. J. Cote, F. Kim, J. X. Huang, “Langmuir-blodgett assembly of graphite oxide single layers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 1043–1049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. J.

X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, S.

V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S. I. Khondaker, S. Seal, “Graphene based materials: Past, present and future,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56(8), 1178–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dikin, D. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Djurisi, A. B.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. S.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Y. M.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, D. A.

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
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A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberger, J.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodwin, A.

X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, L. E.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, R. P.

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gundu Rao, T. K.

A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
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X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, S. H.

T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herrera-Alonso, M.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, E. W.

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
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Hoffmann, A.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. M.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. X.

L. J. Cote, F. Kim, J. X. Huang, “Langmuir-blodgett assembly of graphite oxide single layers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 1043–1049 (2009).
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W. S. Hummers, R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
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S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Il Ahn, S.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
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R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
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Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y. Y.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z. D.

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

Jing, W. X.

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

Johnson, A. T. C.

Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joung, D.

V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S. I. Khondaker, S. Seal, “Graphene based materials: Past, present and future,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56(8), 1178–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I.

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarczyk, G.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
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G. Williams, P. V. Kamat, “Graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites: excited-state interactions between ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide,” Langmuir 25(24), 13869–13873 (2009).
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Katsnelson, M. I.

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khondaker, S. I.

V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S. I. Khondaker, S. Seal, “Graphene based materials: Past, present and future,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56(8), 1178–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kikkawa, J. M.

Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. O.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. J.

T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, F.

L. J. Cote, F. Kim, J. X. Huang, “Langmuir-blodgett assembly of graphite oxide single layers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 1043–1049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, G.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. C.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinhammes, A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhaas, K. A.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kriegseis, W.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

K. S. Subrahmanyam, P. Kumar, A. Nag, C. N. R. Rao, “Blue light emitting graphene-based materials and their use in generating white light,” Solid State Commun. 150(37-38), 1774–1777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, C. Y.

A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. W.

C. W. Lai, J. An, H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

Law, M.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

Leung, Y. H.

A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. S.

P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B.

Y. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, L. K. Pan, T. Lu, Z. Sun, “Capacitive behavior of graphene–ZnO composite film for supercapacitors,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 634(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. L.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. G.

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, C. Y.

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H. C.

C. C. Lin, H. P. Chen, H. C. Liao, S. Y. Chen, “Enhanced luminescent and electrical properties of hydrogen-plasma ZnO nanorods grown on wafer-scale flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A.

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, K. Y.

S. W. Hwang, D. H. Shin, C. O. Kim, S. H. Hong, M. C. Kim, J. Kim, K. Y. Lim, S. Kim, S. H. Choi, K. J. Ahn, G. Kim, S. H. Sim, B. H. Hong, “Plasmon-enhanced ultraviolet photoluminescence from hybrid structures of graphene/ZnO films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(12), 127403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

C. C. Lin, H. P. Chen, H. C. Liao, S. Y. Chen, “Enhanced luminescent and electrical properties of hydrogen-plasma ZnO nanorods grown on wafer-scale flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(18), 183103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 17(17), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. M.

J. M. Lin, H. Y. Lin, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, “Giant enhancement of bandgap emission of ZnO nanorods by platinum nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 17(17), 4391–4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. Y.

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. Y.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, X. Wu, H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, “Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3141–3147 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z. T.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, K. P.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T.

Y. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, L. K. Pan, T. Lu, Z. Sun, “Capacitive behavior of graphene–ZnO composite film for supercapacitors,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 634(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lui, H. F.

A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. T.

Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattevi, C.

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAllister, M. J.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mele, E. J.

Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B. K.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milius, D. L.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S.

K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mkhoyan, K.

K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müllen, K.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nag, A.

K. S. Subrahmanyam, P. Kumar, A. Nag, C. N. R. Rao, “Blue light emitting graphene-based materials and their use in generating white light,” Solid State Commun. 150(37-38), 1774–1777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nan, H. Y.

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, S. T.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Z. H.

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L. L.

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offeman, R. E.

W. S. Hummers, R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, N.

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

C. W. Lai, J. An, H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, L. K.

Y. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, L. K. Pan, T. Lu, Z. Sun, “Capacitive behavior of graphene–ZnO composite film for supercapacitors,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 634(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pham, V. H.

T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R. D.

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prud’homme, R. K.

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, H.

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

Qu, S.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. N. R.

K. S. Subrahmanyam, P. Kumar, A. Nag, C. N. R. Rao, “Blue light emitting graphene-based materials and their use in generating white light,” Solid State Commun. 150(37-38), 1774–1777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
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Roy, V. A. L.

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L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
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R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
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D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
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D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
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S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
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K. Mkhoyan, A. W. Contryman, J. Silcox, D. A. Stewart, G. Eda, C. Mattevi, S. Miller, M. Chhowalla, “Atomic and electronic structure of graphene-oxide,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1058–1063 (2009).
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D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
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X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
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T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
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X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
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D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
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D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
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Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
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W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
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J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
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Wang, S.

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
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Wang, W. H.

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
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Wang, X.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
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T. Chen, G. Z. Xing, Z. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, T. Wu, “Tailoring the photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires using Au nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(43), 435711 (2008).
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S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
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Xie, M. H.

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. Chen, G. Z. Xing, Z. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, T. Wu, “Tailoring the photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires using Au nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(43), 435711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
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Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
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G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. X.

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Y.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

Yang, J. X.

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeung, K. K.

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J. B.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yousefi, N.

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S. F.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

Yuan, Z. Z.

P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaric, S.

X. M. Sun, Z. Liu, K. Welsher, J. T. Robinson, A. Goodwin, S. Zaric, H. J. Dai, “Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery,” Nano. Res. 1(3), 203–212 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhai, L.

V. Singh, D. Joung, L. Zhai, S. Das, S. I. Khondaker, S. Seal, “Graphene based materials: Past, present and future,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56(8), 1178–1271 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. W.

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. F.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. P.

Y. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, L. K. Pan, T. Lu, Z. Sun, “Capacitive behavior of graphene–ZnO composite film for supercapacitors,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 634(1), 68–71 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

T. Chen, G. Z. Xing, Z. Zhang, H. Y. Chen, T. Wu, “Tailoring the photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires using Au nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(43), 435711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W. W.

X. T. Guo, Z. H. Ni, C. Y. Liao, H. Y. Nan, Y. Zhang, W. W. Zhao, W. H. Wang, “Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q. B.

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhi, L. J.

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, F.

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. L.

Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (2)

Q. B. Zheng, W. H. Ip, X. Y. Lin, N. Yousefi, K. K. Yeung, Z. G. Li, J. K. Kim, “Transparent conductive films consisting of ultralarge graphene sheets produced by Langmuir-Blodgett assembly,” ACS Nano 5(7), 6039–6051 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, J. X. Yang, J. Z. Wang, A. Lim, S. Wang, K. P. Loh, “One-Pot synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoribbons, nanoparticles, and graphene by the exfoliation of graphite in ionic liquids,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2367–2375 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. B. Djurisic, W. C. H. Choy, V. A. L. Roy, Y. H. Leung, C. Y. Kwong, K. W. Cheah, T. K. Gundu Rao, W. K. Chan, H. F. Lui, C. Surya, “Photoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of ZnO tetrapod structures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(9), 856–864 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. Eda, Y. Y. Lin, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. A. Chen, I. S. Chen, C. W. Chen, M. Chhowalla, “Blue photoluminescence from chemically derived graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater. 22(4), 505–509 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (2)

L. E. Greene, M. Law, J. Goldberger, F. Kim, J. C. Johnson, Y. F. Zhang, R. J. Saykally, P. D. Yang, “Low-temperature wafer-scale production of ZnO nanowire arrays,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 42(26), 3031–3034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, N. Tsao, Z. Tomović, J. L. Li, K. Müllen, “Transparent carbon films as electrodes in organic solar cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(16), 2990–2992 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

P. H. Cheng, D. S. Li, Z. Z. Yuan, P. L. Chen, D. Yang, “Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, J. An, H. C. Ong, “Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 251105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, Y. M. Fan, S. Qu, N. F. Chen, “Surface plasmon enhanced ultraviolet emission from ZnO films deposited on Ag Si (001) by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, “Enhancement of ultraviolet lasing from Ag-coated highly disordered ZnO films by surface-plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231106 (2007).

D. Li, Y. H. Leung, A. B. Djurisi, Z. T. Liu, M. H. Xie, S. L. Shi, S. J. Xu, W. K. Chan, “Different origins of visible luminescence in ZnO nanostructures fabricated by the chemical and evaporation methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(9), 1601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhou, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, B. K. Meyer, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, “Behind the weak excitonic emission of ZnO quantum dots: ZnO/Zn(OH)2 core-shell structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Xie, T. Sekiguchi, T. Ishigaki, N. Ohashi, D. Li, D. Yang, B. Liu, Y. Bando, “Enhancement and patterning of ultraviolet emission in ZnO with an electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 134103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Carbon (3)

D. X. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice, R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009).
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Y. Gao, X. Q. Chen, H. Xu, Y. L. Zou, R. P. Gu, M. S. Xu, A. K. Y. Jen, H. Z. Chen, “Highly-efficient fabrication of nanoscrolls from functionalized graphene oxide by Langmuir–Blodgett method,” Carbon 48(15), 4475–4482 (2010).
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S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. J. McAllister, J. L. Li, D. H. Adamson, H. C. Schniepp, A. A. Abdala, J. Liu, M. Herrera-Alonso, D. L. Milius, R. Car, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, “Single sheet functionalized graphene by oxidation and thermal expansion of graphite,” Chem. Mater. 19(18), 4396–4404 (2007).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

W. S. Hummers, R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Kim, S. M. Lee, Y. S. Do, S. Il Ahn, K. C. Choi, “Enhanced photoluminescence from zinc oxide by plasmonic resonance of reduced graphene oxide,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 074903 (2013).
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J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

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J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

W. X. Jing, B. Wang, L. L. Niu, Z. D. Jiang, H. Qi, L. J. Chen, F. Zhou, “Effects of synthesizing parameters on surface roughness and contact angles of ZnO nanowire films,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13, 1–6 (2013).
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Langmuir (1)

G. Williams, P. V. Kamat, “Graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites: excited-state interactions between ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide,” Langmuir 25(24), 13869–13873 (2009).
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Mater. Lett. (1)

T. V. Cuong, V. H. Pham, Q. T. Tran, S. H. Hahn, J. S. Chung, E. W. Shin, E. J. Kim, “Photoluminescence and Raman studies of graphene thin films prepared by reduction of graphene oxide,” Mater. Lett. 64(3), 399–401 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (2)

X. Wang, L. J. Zhi, K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
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Nano. Res. (1)

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Nanotechnology (2)

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Nat. Chem. (1)

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010).
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F. Schedin, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, E. W. Hill, P. Blake, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, “Detection of individual gas molecules adsorbed on graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(9), 652–655 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

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Science (2)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Solid State Commun. (1)

K. S. Subrahmanyam, P. Kumar, A. Nag, C. N. R. Rao, “Blue light emitting graphene-based materials and their use in generating white light,” Solid State Commun. 150(37-38), 1774–1777 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) An AFM image of GO sheets on a silicon wafer obtained using typical tapping mode measurement. (b) A depth profile in a line scan of the area shown in (a). (c) A top and (d) a side views of as-prepared ZnO nanorods. (e) A top view of GO/ZnO hybrid structure. A 20° tilted view SEM images of the uncovered (e1) and covered (e2) ZnO nanorods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical C1s XPS spectra for GO films at different reduction temperatures: (a) unreduced GO, (b) 200 °C, (c) 500 °C, (d) 800 °C. (e) (C-C) % content and the values of C/O ratio as a function of the annealing temperature, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) PL spectra of ZnO nanorods upon different heating temperatures. (b) Integrated PL intensity ratio as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) PL spectra of GO thin films upon different heating temperatures. The inset is the influence of reduction temperature on the PL intensity and peak position, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Corrected PL spectra of GO/ZnO hybrid structures annealed at (a) unannealed, (b) 200 °C, (c) 500 °C, (d) 800 °C and their control samples, respectively. (e) Intensity of UV and defect emission vs the annealing temperature. (f) The UV enhancement factor vs (C-C) %.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Corrected PL spectra of rGO covered samples annealed at 800 °C according to the various spacer thicknesses. The inset shows integrated PL intensities of UV and defect emission vs the spacer thickness.

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