Abstract

InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes (LDs) suffer from electron leakage into the p-type regions, which could be only partially alleviated by employing the electron blocking layer (EBL). Here, a thin undoped InGaN interlayer prior to EBL is proposed to create an additional forbidden energy range above the natural conduction band edge, which further suppresses the electron leakage and thus improve the characteristics of LDs. Numerical device simulations reveal that when the proper composition and thickness of InGaN interlayer are chosen, the electron leakage could be efficiently eliminated without inducing any severe accumulation of electrons at the interlayer, resulting in a maximum output power of the device.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

J. Piprek, S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Zhang, Z. C. Liu, X. D. Hu, “An improved multi-layer stopper in a GaN-based laser diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(4), 045003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, Y. C. Lu, M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of 405-nm InGaN laser diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72111B (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. A.

J. R. Chen, C. H. Lee, T. S. Ko, Y. A. Chang, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Effects of built-in polarization and carrier overflow on InGaN quantum-well lasers with electronic blocking layers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(3), 329–337 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. R.

Chen, W. H.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chio, K. K.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chio, S.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. Y.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, W. M.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ha, K. H.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. A.

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. D.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, Z. C. Liu, X. D. Hu, “An improved multi-layer stopper in a GaN-based laser diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(4), 045003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, T.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, M. H.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T. T.

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. S.

Kuo, H. C.

Kuo, Y. K.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. C. Lu, M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of 405-nm InGaN laser diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72111B (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Chen, C. H. Lee, T. S. Ko, Y. A. Chang, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Effects of built-in polarization and carrier overflow on InGaN quantum-well lasers with electronic blocking layers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(3), 329–337 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

Lee, S. N.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

J. Piprek, S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N. Y.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. C.

D. Zhang, Z. C. Liu, X. D. Hu, “An improved multi-layer stopper in a GaN-based laser diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(4), 045003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, Z.

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Lu, Y. C.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. C. Lu, M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of 405-nm InGaN laser diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72111B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nam, O. H.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paek, H. S.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pattison, P. M.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J. H.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Satter, M. M.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. C.

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sink, R. K.

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. K.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. C.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. C. Lu, M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of 405-nm InGaN laser diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72111B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wan, C. H.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Yang, M. H.

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S. H.

Y. K. Kuo, Y. C. Lu, M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of 405-nm InGaN laser diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72111B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, Z. C. Liu, X. D. Hu, “An improved multi-layer stopper in a GaN-based laser diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(4), 045003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. N. Lee, S. Y. Cho, H. Y. Ryu, J. K. Son, H. S. Paek, T. Sakong, T. Jang, K. K. Chio, K. H. Ha, M. H. Yang, O. H. Nam, Y. Park, “High-power GaN-based blue-violet laser diodes with AlGaN/GaN multiquantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, S. Li, “Origin of InGaN light-emitting diode efficiency improvements using chirped AlGaN multi-quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(2), 023510 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Chio, M. H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. Li, N. Y. Liu, Z. Chen, L. Wang, L. Liu, L. Li, C. H. Wan, W. H. Chen, X. D. Hu, W. M. Du, “Improvement of hole injection and electron overflow by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(3), 031105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hansen, J. Piprek, P. M. Pattison, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Higher efficiency InGaN laser diodes with an improved quantum well capping configuration,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(22), 4275–4277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. K. Kuo, Y. A. Chang, “Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Zhang, T. T. Kao, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, S. S. Kim, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, S. C. Shen, “Effects of a step-graded AlxGa1-xN electron blocking layer in InGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, “Nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085207 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Piprek, R. K. Sink, M. A. Hansen, J. E. Bowers, S. P. DenBaars, “Simulation and optimization of 420 nm InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 3944, 28–39 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Kuo, Y. C. Lu, M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, “Numerical simulation of 405-nm InGaN laser diodes with polarization-matched AlGaInN electron-blocking layer and barrier layer,” Proc. SPIE 7211, 72111B (2009).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Zhang, Z. C. Liu, X. D. Hu, “An improved multi-layer stopper in a GaN-based laser diode,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(4), 045003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Morkoc, Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2008), Vol. 3.

S. J. Pearton, C. R. Abernathy, and F. Ren, Gallium Nitride Processing for Electronics, Sensors and Spintronics (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of reference and new LD structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical electron energy band diagram near the active region of the (a) reference and (b) new structure LDs at 100 mA. The dashed lines mark the quasi Fermi levels Efn and Efp, and ΔEn and ΔEp are the EBL energy barrier for electrons and holes, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical electron current density versus position in reference and new LDs at 100 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electron and hole concentrations near the active region for (a) reference and (b) new LDs at 100 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electron leakage current density and left-hand side (LHS) electron density of EBL as a function of indium composition of inserted 5 nm thick InGaN layer in LDs at 100 mA. Inset shows the output power of the device versus indium composition of inserted InGaN layer. The vertical arrows show a critical indium composition value (~5%) at which the electron leakage is almost eliminated and the output power reaches its maximum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power-voltage-current diagrams of the reference and new InGaN-based laser diodes.

Equations (1)

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d P o u t d ( I I t h ) = η i ω q α m α i + α m ,

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