Abstract

N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN/P-GaN/N-GaN (NPNPN-GaN) junctions embedded between the n-GaN region and multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are systematically studied both experimentally and theoretically to increase the performance of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) in this work. In the proposed architecture, each thin P-GaN layer sandwiched in the NPNPN-GaN structure is completely depleted due to the built-in electric field in the NPNPN-GaN junctions, and the ionized acceptors in these P-GaN layers serve as the energy barriers for electrons from the n-GaN region, resulting in a reduced electron over flow and enhanced the current spreading horizontally in the n- GaN region. These lead to increased optical output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) from the proposed device.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “light revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-C. Tsai, “Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3285–3287 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  9. J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. H. Y. Ryu and J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  14. L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2013 (3)

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “light revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

H. Y. Ryu and J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-H. Liu, P.-R. Chen, G.-Y. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN LEDs with an n-type AlGaN/GaN/InGaN current spreading layer,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 32(10), 1409–1411 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-C. Tsai, “Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3285–3287 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN–GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[Crossref]

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
[Crossref]

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
[Crossref]

Akutsu, N.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bethoux, J. M.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.-Y.

Chang, L.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.-R.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.-C.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-R.

H.-H. Liu, P.-R. Chen, G.-Y. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN LEDs with an n-type AlGaN/GaN/InGaN current spreading layer,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 32(10), 1409–1411 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN–GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. C.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J.-I.

H.-H. Liu, P.-R. Chen, G.-Y. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN LEDs with an n-type AlGaN/GaN/InGaN current spreading layer,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 32(10), 1409–1411 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Mierry, P.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “light revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “light revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dikme, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y.-K.

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feltin, E.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Figiel, J. J.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, D.

D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hasanov, N.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hearne, S. J.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ho, J.-K.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T.-C.

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jong, C.-S.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN–GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, Z. G.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kai, J.-J.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-C. Tsai, “Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3285–3287 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kyaw, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lanford, W.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, G.-Y.

H.-H. Liu, P.-R. Chen, G.-Y. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN LEDs with an n-type AlGaN/GaN/InGaN current spreading layer,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 32(10), 1409–1411 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. R.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.-H.

H.-H. Liu, P.-R. Chen, G.-Y. Lee, and J.-I. Chyi, “Efficiency enhancement of InGaN LEDs with an n-type AlGaN/GaN/InGaN current spreading layer,” IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 32(10), 1409–1411 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massoubre, D.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, K.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Myers, S. M.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nam, E.

D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nataf, G.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Natali, F.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Petersen, G. A.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ping, A. T.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H. Y.

Schubert, E. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Guo and E. F. Schubert, “Current crowding in GaN/InGaN light emitting diodes on insulating substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(8), 4191–4195 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Semond, F.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.-J.

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, and M. J. Jou, “Enhanced output power in an InGaN–GaN multiquantum-well light-emitting diode with an InGaN current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(11), 1164–1166 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shih, K.-K.

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.

D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. I.

Shin, D. S.

D. Han, J. Shim, D. S. Shin, E. Nam, and H. Park, “Effect of temperature distribution and current crowding on the performance of lateral GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7(7–8), 2133–2135 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “light revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “light revolution”,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tokunaga, H.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tottereau, O.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-C.

Y.-K. Kuo, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-C. Tsai, “Enhancement in hole-injection efficiency of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes from reduced polarization by some specific designs for the electron blocking layer,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3285–3287 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-L.

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ubukata, A.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vennegues, P.

J. M. Bethoux, P. Vennegues, F. Natali, E. Feltin, O. Tottereau, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, and F. Semond, “Growth of high quality crack-free AlGaN films on GaN templates using plastic relaxation through buried cracks,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6499–6508 (2003).
[Crossref]

Waldrip, K. E.

J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, S. R. Lee, J. J. Figiel, S. J. Hearne, G. A. Petersen, and S. M. Myers, “Control and elimination of cracking of AlGaN using low-temperature AlGaN interlayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(1), 67–70 (2001).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, A.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, T.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yano, Y.

H. Tokunaga, A. Ubukata, Y. Yano, A. Yamaguchi, N. Akutsu, T. Yamasaki, and K. Matsumoto, “Effects of growth pressure on AlGaN and Mg-doped GaN grown using multiwafer metal organic vapor phase epitaxy system,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1–4), 348–352 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yen, S.-H.

S.-H. Yen, M.-C. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, Y.-J. Shen, T.-C. Hsu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Effect of n-type AlGaN layer on carrier transportation and efficiency droop of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(14), 975–977 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 123503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II ‘W’ InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043104 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, K.

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L. Zhou, W. Lanford, A. T. Ping, I. Adesida, J. W. Yang, and A. Khan, “Low resistance Ti/Pt/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(23), 3451–3453 (2000).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011104 (2008).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

L.-C. Chen, J.-K. Ho, C.-S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, K.-K. Shih, F.-R. Chen, J.-J. Kai, and L. Chang, “Oxidized Ni/Pt and Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3703–3706 (2000).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of (a) the reference device and (b) the proposed NPNPN-GaN device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EL spectra measured from (a) the reference device and (b) the NPNPN-GaN device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical output power and EQE measured as a function of the current injection for the reference device and the proposed NPNPN-GaN device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy band diagram at 20 A/cm2 for (a) the reference device and (b) the NPNPN-GaN device. Ec, Ev, Efe and Efh denote the conduction band, valance band, and quasi-Fermi level for electrons and holes, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated (a) electron concentration and (b) normalized electron current at 20 A/cm2 across the InGaN/GaN MQWs region for the reference device and the NPNPN-GaN device, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Equivalent circuit of an InGaN/GaN LED grown on an insulating substrate (e.g., sapphire) using Ni/Au current spreading layer with lateral current-injection scheme (I1 > I2 > I3 > I4 > ..... > In) [17], and (b) simplified equivalent circuit of the InGaN/GaN LED with possible current paths (J1 and J2) when the NPNPN-GaN junctions is embedded, using Ni/Au as the current spreading layer on the top [17].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated (a) hole concentration and (b) radiative recombination rates at 20 A/cm2 across the InGaN/GaN MQW region for the reference device and the NPNPN-GaN device, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured I-V characteristics of the reference device and the NPNPN-GaN device.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J 1 J 2 = w CSL t CSL lw + 1 ρ pGaN ρ CSL t p + N ρ npn ρ CSL
J 1 J 2 1 ρ pGaN ρ CSL t p + N ρ npn ρ CSL
V bi = kT e ln( N a N d N i 2 )
W t = 2 ε r ε 0 ( 1/ N a +1/ N d ) V bi e
B V RT = e N a W p 2 2 ε r ε 0

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