Abstract

We report a new and improved photon counting method for the precision PDE measurement of SiPM detectors, utilizing two integrating spheres connected serially and calibrated reference detectors. First, using a ray tracing simulation and irradiance measurement results with a reference photodiode, we investigated irradiance characteristics of the measurement instrument, and analyzed dominating systematic uncertainties in PDE measurement. Two SiPM detectors were then used for PDE measurements between wavelengths of 368 and 850 nm and for bias voltages varying from around 70V. The resulting PDEs of the SiPMs show good agreement with those from other studies, yet with an improved accuracy of 1.57% (1σ). This was achieved by the simultaneous measurement with the NIST calibrated reference detectors, which suppressed the time dependent variation of source light. The technical details of the instrumentation, measurement results and uncertainty analysis are reported together with their implications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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2013 (2)

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Eckert, H.-C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, R. Stamen, A. Tadday, “Characterisation studies of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 620(2-3), 217–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1970 (1)

M. W. Finkel, “Integrating sphere theory,” Opt. Commun. 2(1), 25–28 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

Ahn, K. B.

Belluso, M.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Billotta, S.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonanno, G.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, S.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budtz-Jørgensen, C.

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Tirado, A. J.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. H.

Choi, J. N.

Clare, J. F.

Connell, P.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cosentino, L.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Di Mauro, S.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, P.

P. Eckert, H.-C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, R. Stamen, A. Tadday, “Characterisation studies of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 620(2-3), 217–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

Eyles, C.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Finkel, M. W.

M. W. Finkel, “Integrating sphere theory,” Opt. Commun. 2(1), 25–28 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Finocchiaro, P.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

Grossan, B.

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hose, J.

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. A.

Huang, M.-H. A.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, A.

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. E.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. B.

Kim, S. W.

Kim, S.-W.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. W.

Lee, J.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legré, M.

Li, C.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linder, E. V.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-C.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Min, K. W.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirzoyan, R.

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Na, G. W.

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nam, J. W.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Occhipinti, G.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otte, A. N.

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panasyuk, M. I.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pappalardo, A.

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. H.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persky, M. J.

Reglero, V.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripa, J.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochas, A.

Rodrigo, J. M.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Romaszkiewicz, A.

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.

P. Eckert, H.-C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, R. Stamen, A. Tadday, “Characterisation studies of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 620(2-3), 217–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W.

P. Eckert, H.-C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, R. Stamen, A. Tadday, “Characterisation studies of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 620(2-3), 217–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smoot, G. F.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamen, R.

P. Eckert, H.-C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, R. Stamen, A. Tadday, “Characterisation studies of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 620(2-3), 217–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J. E.

Svertilov, S.

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Szczesniak, M.

Tadday, A.

P. Eckert, H.-C. Schultz-Coulon, W. Shen, R. Stamen, A. Tadday, “Characterisation studies of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 620(2-3), 217–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. H.

Teshima, M.

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thea, A.

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vedenkin, N.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, L.

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yashin, I.

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeong, J. W. Nam, K. B. Ahn, I. H. Park, S. W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, M. H. Cho, J. N. Choi, B. Grossan, M. A. Huang, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, M. B. Kim, Y. W. Kim, E. V. Linder, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, M. I. Panasyuk, J. Ripa, V. Reglero, G. F. Smoot, J. E. Suh, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Slewing mirror telescope optics for the early observation of UV/optical photons from gamma-ray bursts,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2263–2278 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

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Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

New J. Phys. (1)

I. H. Park, S. Brandt, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, A. J. Castro-Tirado, P. Chen, P. Connell, C. Eyles, B. Grossan, M.-H. A. Huang, S. Jeong, A. Jung, J. E. Kim, S.-W. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lim, E. V. Linder, T.-C. Liu, K. W. Min, G. W. Na, J. W. Nam, M. I. Panasyuk, V. Reglero, J. Ripa, J. M. Rodrigo, G. F. Smoot, S. Svertilov, N. Vedenkin, I. Yashin, “Ultra-fast flash observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023031 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (3)

A. N. Otte, J. Hose, R. Mirzoyan, A. Romaszkiewicz, M. Teshima, A. Thea, “A measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 567(1), 360–363 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Bonanno, P. Finocchiaro, A. Pappalardo, S. Billotta, L. Cosentino, M. Belluso, S. Di Mauro, G. Occhipinti, “Precision measurements of photon detection efficiency for SiPM detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 610(1), 93–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. He, P. Li, H. Wu, C. Li, L. Xiong, H. Meng, D. Liu, J. Zhang, J. Zhang, “Analysis of the output irradiance uniformity of integrating sphere source,” Proc. SPIE 8417, 841729 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

UKAS Technical article M3003, “The expression of uncertainty and confidence in measurement” (United Kingdom Accreditation Service, 2012), http://www.ukas.com/library/Technical-Information/Pubs-Technical-Articles/Pubs-List/M3003_Ed3_final.pdf .

K. Yamamoto, K. Yamamura, K. Sato, T. Ota, H. Suzuki, and S. Ohsuka, “Development of multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nuclear Science Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Diego, 2006), pp. 1094–1097.

G. Lefeuvre, P. Gorodetzky, and P. Salin, “Measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield in Nitrogen between 0.5 and 2.3 MeV,” in Proceedings of International Cosmic Ray Conference (Pune, India, 2005), pp. 101–104.

I. G. Hughes and T. P. A. Hase, Measurements and Their Uncertainties: A Practical Guide to Modern Error Analysis (Oxford University, 2010), Chaps. 3 and 4.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of the PDE measurement instrument including two integrating spheres, multi-wavelength LEDs, reference photodiodes of Ophir PD300R-UV and Thorlabs S150C, and the SiPM with its readout electronics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PDE measurement instrument as built (right): (1) reference photodiode 1, (2) reference photodiode 2, (3) LED light source, (4) integrating sphere 1, (5) integrating sphere 2, (6) integrating sphere 2 exit port, (7) SiPM(MPPC), (8) amplifier & high voltage power supply. The left figure illustrates the 3D cross-sectional diagram of integrating sphere 1 and 2 along the line (9) in the right figure, where the divergence angle of LED is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The number of photons arriving at the SiPM versus wavelength of LED pulse. Blue squares and red triangles indicate the measurement at the SiPM location and the result of simulation, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Irradiance ratio variation between PD1 and SiPM locations, as defined as R in Eq. (2), plotted against wavelength. Vertical errors are too small to be seen.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The histogram of SiPM signal in unit of ADC values. It follows a Poisson distribution. The pedestal value is determined by Gaussian fitting to the count data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The PDE measurement versus “over voltage” for MPPC 100 micropixel (S10362-11-100C; left) and MPPC 1600 micropixel (S10362-11-25C; right) for different wavelengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured PDE of S10362-11-100C plotted against wavelength. Symbols represent the measurement data from different over voltages.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured PDE of S10362-11-25C plotted against wavelength. Symbols represent the measurement data from different over voltages.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output irradiance uniformity across the PD1 exit port.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Number of incident photons per pulse at the SiPM location (MPPC S10362-11-100C)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Example of PDE measurement uncertainty budget (S10362-11-025C, over voltage: 4.8V, λ: 465nm)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N Detected = N SiPM N Dark .
N Incident =( P PD P Dark ) λT hc A SiPM A PD 1 R .
PDE(%)= N Detected N Incident = ( N SiPM N Dark ) ( P PD P Dark ) hc λT A PD A SiPM R.
P(n;μ)= μ n exp(μ) n! .
μ=ln( n ped n tot ).
N photon = n tot n=1 P(n;μ) .

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