Abstract

In the last few years Mid InfraRed (MIR) photonics has received renewed interest for a variety of commercial, scientific and military applications. This paper reports the design, the fabrication and the characterization of SiGe/Si based graded index waveguides and photonics integrated devices. The thickness and the Ge concentration of the core layer were optimized to cover the full [3 - 8 µm] band. The developed SiGe/Si stack has been used to fabricate straight waveguides and basic optical functions such as Y-junction, crossings and couplers. Straight waveguides showed losses as low as 1 dB/cm at λ = 4.5 µm and 2 dB/cm at 7.4 µm. Likewise straight waveguides, basic functions exhibit nearly theoretical behavior with losses compatible with the implementation of more complex functions in integrated photonics circuits. To the best of our knowledge, the performances of those Mid-IR waveguides significantly exceed the state of the art, confirming the feasibility of using graded SiGe/Si devices in a wide range of wavelengths. These results represent a capital breakthrough to develop a photonic platform working in the Mid-IR range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013

2012

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1947–1962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonzatti, J. M. Hartmann, K. Yckache, “Low and high temperature boron and phosphorus doping of Si for junctions and MEMS purposes,” ECS Trans. 16(10), 485–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

2006

R. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, G. Rolland, T. Billon, “SiGe high temperature growth kinetics in Reduced Pressure – chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 28–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Ladouceur, P. Labeye, “A new general approach to optical waveguide path design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 481–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, “X-junctions in buried channel waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 1373–1379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Low-losses single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(23), 1628–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Regener, W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Atanackovic, P.

Audet, R.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Audet, R. M.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandara, S. V.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

Barritault, P.

Belkin, M. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ben Masaud, T. M.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Low-losses single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(23), 1628–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Billon, T.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, G. Rolland, T. Billon, “SiGe high temperature growth kinetics in Reduced Pressure – chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 28–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

Bogumilowicz, Y.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, G. Rolland, T. Billon, “SiGe high temperature growth kinetics in Reduced Pressure – chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 28–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brun, M.

Buchwald, W.

R. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carras, M.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherkashin, N.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Claverie, A.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S. W.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emerson, N. G.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ettabib, M. A.

Faist, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzatti, F.

F. Gonzatti, J. M. Hartmann, K. Yckache, “Low and high temperature boron and phosphorus doping of Si for junctions and MEMS purposes,” ECS Trans. 16(10), 485–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

Gunapala, S. D.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

Hammani, K.

Hartmann, J. M.

P. Barritault, M. Brun, P. Labeye, O. Lartigue, J. M. Hartmann, S. Nicoletti, “Mlines characterization of the refractive index profile of SiGe gradient waveguides at 2.15 µm,” Opt. Express 21(9), 11506–11515 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gonzatti, J. M. Hartmann, K. Yckache, “Low and high temperature boron and phosphorus doping of Si for junctions and MEMS purposes,” ECS Trans. 16(10), 485–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, G. Rolland, T. Billon, “SiGe high temperature growth kinetics in Reduced Pressure – chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 28–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C. J.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

Höfler, G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D.

Hufler, G. E.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaberansary, E.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L.

Kapon, E.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Low-losses single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(23), 1628–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kapsalis, A.

Labadie, L.

Labeye, P.

Ladouceur, F.

F. Ladouceur, P. Labeye, “A new general approach to optical waveguide path design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 481–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, “X-junctions in buried channel waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 1373–1379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lartigue, O.

Laugier, F.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, S.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Liu, J. K.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

Love, J. D.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, “X-junctions in buried channel waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 1373–1379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

MacArthur, J.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

Magi, E.

Marcadet, X.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, M. M.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moghe, Y.

Moss, D. J.

Mumolo, J. M.

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

Napoleone, A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nicoletti, S.

O’Brien, C.

Oakley, D. C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

Peter, E.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Pflügl, C.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Read, A.

Reed, G. T.

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Regener, R.

R. Regener, W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Robbo, J. A.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, G.

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, G. Rolland, T. Billon, “SiGe high temperature growth kinetics in Reduced Pressure – chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 28–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Regener, W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

Wallner, O.

Yckache, K.

F. Gonzatti, J. M. Hartmann, K. Yckache, “Low and high temperature boron and phosphorus doping of Si for junctions and MEMS purposes,” ECS Trans. 16(10), 485–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. A.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Regener, W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, “Low-losses single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(23), 1628–1630 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Peter, S. Laurent, C. Sirtori, M. Carras, J. A. Robbo, M. Garcia, X. Marcadet, “Measurement of semiconductor waveguide optical properties in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Höfler, J. Faist, “Widely tunable single-mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Milosević, M. Nedeljkovic, T. M. Ben Masaud, E. Jaberansary, H. M. H. Chong, N. G. Emerson, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon waveguides and devices for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 121105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ECS Trans.

F. Gonzatti, J. M. Hartmann, K. Yckache, “Low and high temperature boron and phosphorus doping of Si for junctions and MEMS purposes,” ECS Trans. 16(10), 485–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. G. Lee, M. A. Belkin, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, H. A. Zhang, R. M. Audet, J. MacArthur, D. P. Bour, S. W. Corzine, G. E. Hufler, F. Capasso, “DFB quantum cascade laser arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 554–565 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, F. Laugier, G. Rolland, T. Billon, N. Cherkashin, A. Claverie, “High germanium content SiGe virtual substrates grown at high temperatures,” J. Cryst. Growth 283(3–4), 346–355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bogumilowicz, J. M. Hartmann, G. Rolland, T. Billon, “SiGe high temperature growth kinetics in Reduced Pressure – chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 28–37 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

F. Ladouceur, P. Labeye, “A new general approach to optical waveguide path design,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 481–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt.

R. Soref, S. J. Emelett, W. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Quantum Electron.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, “X-junctions in buried channel waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24(12), 1373–1379 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, “Toward dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays,” Proc. SPIE 6542, 65420W (2007).

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solid (Academic, 1985).

J.-M. Hartmann, “Epitaxy of strained Si/SiGe heterostructures,” in Silicon Technologies Ion Implantation and Thermal Treatment, A. Baudrant, ed. (John Wiley, 2013)

See for example A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

RSoft is a trademark of Synopsys OSG, http://optics.synopsys.com/about/

P. Labeye, “Composants optiques intégrés pour l’interférométrie astronomique,” Ph.D. thesis dissertation, http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.3030 .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the waveguide stack.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide behavior as a function of wavelength and width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SIMS Ge concentration profile vs. layer thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning Electron Microscopy image of a SiGe waveguide core after etching of the waveguide core layer. In the inset: a cross section of the final structure showing the SiGe core completely encapsulated with the epitaxial Si cladding layer. Intensity grading in the vertical direction is related to the variation of the Ge concentration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principle of the waveguide linear losses measurement by Fabry Perot fringes contrast.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM picture of different functions tested. a) Y-junction, b) X-junction c) S-bends and d) evanescent couplers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Device layout of the optical functions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Description of the different geometries of the a) Y-junction, b) evanescent couplers, c) X-junction, and their characteristic parameters.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematics of the junction in a S bend test device.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulated normalized transmission for both symmetric and asymmetric evanescent couplers as a function of wavelength close to 4.5µm. These curves were obtained by semi-vectorial TM BPM simulations using the RSoftTM CAD suite software.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Losses of the different optical functions as function of the wavelength. Split ratio is also reported for Y junctions and couplers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of the Y-junctions geometry.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of the X-junctions geometry.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Parameters of the p-curve type design according to [22].

Tables Icon

Table 5 Parameters of the evanescent coupler design.

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