Abstract

The light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with a nano-sized random scattering layer (RSL-OLEDs) was analyzed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to periodic diffraction patterns, the presence of an RSL suppresses the spectral shift with respect to the viewing angle. For FDTD simulation of RSL-OLEDs, a planar light source with a certain spatial and temporal coherence was incorporated, and the light extraction efficiency with respect to the fill factor of the RSL and the absorption coefficient of the material was investigated. The design results were compared to the experimental results of the RSL-OLEDs in order to confirm the usefulness of FDTD in predicting experimental results. According to our FDTD simulations, the light confined within the ITO-organic waveguide was quickly absorbed, and the absorption coefficients of ITO and RSL materials should be reduced in order to obtain significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency (EQE). When the extinction coefficient of ITO was 0.01, the EQE in the RSL-OLED was simulated to be enhanced by a factor of 1.8.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).
  2. V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLED with randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X.-L. Zhang, J. Feng, J.-F. Song, X.-B. Li, H.-B. Sun, “Grating amplitude effect on electroluminescence enhancement of corrugated organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3915–3917 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).
  14. A. Aziz, K. L. Narasimhan, “Subband gap optical absorption and defects in Tris(8 hydroxy quinolato) aluminium,” Synth. Met. 131(1–3), 71–77 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Bennett, “Precise Method for Measuring the Absolute Phase Change on Reflection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54(5), 612–624 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, S.-K. Park, J.-H. Moon, B.-J. Lee, N.-S. Cho, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Huh, C.-W. Joo, J.-H. Hwang, H.-Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Light extraction for white OLEDs by nano-structures and high refractive index layer,” in Digest of Technical Papers of the 12th International Meeting on Information Display (IMID, Daegu, Korea, 2012), 182–183.
  17. C.-I. Yeo, Y.-M. Song, S.-J. Jang, Y.-T. Lee, “Wafer-scale broadband antireflective silicon fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching using spin-coating Ag ink,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1109–A1116 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLED with randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).

A. Aziz, K. L. Narasimhan, “Subband gap optical absorption and defects in Tris(8 hydroxy quinolato) aluminium,” Synth. Met. 131(1–3), 71–77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, A.

A. Aziz, K. L. Narasimhan, “Subband gap optical absorption and defects in Tris(8 hydroxy quinolato) aluminium,” Synth. Met. 131(1–3), 71–77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Bulovic, V.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-O.

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-G.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

Choi, Y.-W.

Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diao, X.

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y.-R.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D. Z.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hao, W.

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLED with randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.-J.

Jeon, H.-S.

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.-H.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.-M.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

Kim, J.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

C. H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-D.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koo, W.-H.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.-W.

Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.-S.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-C.

Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-T.

Li, X.-B.

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).

Narasimhan, K. L.

A. Aziz, K. L. Narasimhan, “Subband gap optical absorption and defects in Tris(8 hydroxy quinolato) aluminium,” Synth. Met. 131(1–3), 71–77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLED with randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-D.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

Park, Y.-J.

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

Shim, J.-Y.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.-S.

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

Song, J.-F.

Song, Y.-M.

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).

Sun, H.-B.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toyooka, T.

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, C.-I.

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Youn, J. R.

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-L.

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y.-R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H.-S. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, Y.-R. Do, “Planarized SiNx/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, J.-C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M.-H. Lu, J. C. Sturm, “Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(2), 595–604 (2002).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLED with randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

W. J. Choi, Q.-H. Park, D.-H. Kim, H.-S. Jeon, C.-S. Sone, Y.-J. Park, “FDTD simulation for light extraction in a GaN-based LED,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49(3), 877–880 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

W.-H. Koo, S.-M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (2)

A. O. Altun, S.-H. Jeon, J.-Y. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron. 11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, M. Fujita, S. Noda, “Theoretical analysis on light-extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes using FDTD and mode-expansion methods,” Org. Electron. 6(1), 3–9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Bulović, V. B. Khalfin, G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, D. Z. Garbuzov, S. R. Forrest, “Weak microcavity effect in organic light-emitting devices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3730–3740 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

C. H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

A. Aziz, K. L. Narasimhan, “Subband gap optical absorption and defects in Tris(8 hydroxy quinolato) aluminium,” Synth. Met. 131(1–3), 71–77 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y.-S. Jung, Y.-W. Choi, H.-C. Lee, D.-W. Lee, “Effects of thermal treatment on the electrical and optical properties of silver-based indium tin oxide/metal/indium tin oxide structures,” Thin Solid Films 440(1–2), 278–284 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

Y. Hu, X. Diao, C. Wang, W. Hao, T. Wang, “Effects of heat treatment on properties of ITO films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering,” Vacuum 75(2), 183–188 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, S.-K. Park, J.-H. Moon, B.-J. Lee, N.-S. Cho, J.-H. Han, J.-W. Huh, C.-W. Joo, J.-H. Hwang, H.-Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Light extraction for white OLEDs by nano-structures and high refractive index layer,” in Digest of Technical Papers of the 12th International Meeting on Information Display (IMID, Daegu, Korea, 2012), 182–183.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OLED device structure consisting of an Al cathode, organic layers, an ITO anode, a high index buffer layer, and a random scattering layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Electric field radiation patterns emitted from the dipole array with a randomly set initial phase on each dipole, and (b) output flux detected on the sensor that changed for each calculation, and the convergence of the average value as the number of calculations was increased.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Gaussian pulse wave packet used in the simulation (pulse duration = 18.8 fs), and (b) the resultant spectrum of the light source compared to the experimental measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Accumulated output flux of the RSL-OLED with respect to the extinction coefficient of the ITO and Al. With no absorption the flux is continuously increasing, whilst it saturates when the practical absorption of ITO is reflected in the simulation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OLED device structures used in the FDTD simulation: (a) reference device, and (b) RSL-OLED.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of the temporal and spatial coherence on the micro-cavity with a 280 nm thick organic layer. The spatially coherent CW light exhibits sinusoidal fluctuation of the flux as a result of the micro-cavity effect, whilst the temporally or spatially incoherent light exhibits negligible fluctuations, indicating that the micro-cavity effect has reduced.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

External quantum efficiency calculated for (a) the reference device which exhibited a periodic response due to the micro-cavity effect, and (b) the RSL-OLED which exhibited negligible micro-cavity effects.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Enhancement ratio of the EQE when incorporating a RSL, as a function of the refractive index of the HIBL for various fill factors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) SEM image of RSL structure composed of SiO2 fabricated by the silver dewetting and dry etching process, and (b) SEM image of the good flatness obtained by the HIBL covering of the RSL.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of (a) the simulation results (fill factor = 27%) to (b) the results of the fabricated device (fill factor = 31%) with d = 80 nm, and ni = 0.046.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The effect of the extinction coefficient of the ITO on the EQE and enhancement ratio of RSL-OLEDs. These results indicate that the EQE could be increased by a factor of 1.8 if the ITO has low extinction coefficient.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the material parameters used for the FDTD simulationsa

Metrics