Abstract

In this work we study, using experiments and theoretical modeling, the mechanical and optical properties of tensile strained Ge microstructures directly fabricated in a state-of-the art complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor fabrication line, using fully qualified materials and methods. We show that these microstructures can be used as active lasing materials in mm-long Fabry-Perot cavities, taking advantage of strain-enhanced direct band gap recombination. The results of our study can be realistically applied to the fabrication of a prototype platform for monolithic integration of near infrared laser sources for silicon photonics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, M. Y. Simmons, “New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium,” Nanoscale 5(7), 2600–2615 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Aniel, F.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arguirov, T.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, G.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Boucaud, P.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boztug, C.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Capellini, G.

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, M. Y. Simmons, “New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium,” Nanoscale 5(7), 2600–2615 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, L.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cecchi, S.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaigneau, M.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Checoury, X.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Kersauson, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Seta, M.

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dutt, B.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

El Kurdi, M.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.-Y.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishman, G.

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friedli, P.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ghrib, A.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grosso, G.

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hähnel, A.

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Howe, R. T.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hryciw, A.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Isa, F.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobson, R. B.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, J. R.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jakomin, R.

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kamins, T. I.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kittler, M.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Klesse, W. M.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, M. Y. Simmons, “New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium,” Nanoscale 5(7), 2600–2615 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, T. L.

Kouvetakis, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozlowski, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lagally, M. G.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Largeau, L.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lisker, M.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Makarova, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Manganelli, C. L.

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Menéndez, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Moutanabbir, O.

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ndong, G.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neuenschwander, S.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ossikovski, R.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

Paskiewicz, D. M.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N.

Phung, T. H.

R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pizzi, G.

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Prost, M.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, M.

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scappucci, G.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, M. Y. Simmons, “New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium,” Nanoscale 5(7), 2600–2615 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, M. Y.

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, M. Y. Simmons, “New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium,” Nanoscale 5(7), 2600–2615 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sudradjat, F. F.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sukhdeo, D.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tolle, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virgilio, M.

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vulovic, B.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.

R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Moutanabbir, M. Reiche, A. Hähnel, M. Oehme, E. Kasper, “Multiwavelength micro-Raman analysis of strain in nanopatterned ultrathin strained silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 053105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

B. Dutt, D. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, K. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an efficient germanium-on-silicon Laser: strain vs. n-type doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

R. Xie, T. H. Phung, M. Yu, C. Zhu, “Effective surface passivation by novel SiH4-NH3 treatment and BTI characteristics on interface-engineered high-mobility HfO2-gated Ge pMOSFETs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(6), 1399–1407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, “Band structure and optical gain of tensile-strained germanium based on a 30 band k·p formalism,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Capellini, M. De Seta, P. Zaumseil, G. Kozlowski, T. Schroeder, “High temperature x ray diffraction measurements on Ge/Si(001) heterostructures: a study on the residual tensile strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073518 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale

G. Scappucci, G. Capellini, W. M. Klesse, M. Y. Simmons, “New avenues to an old material: controlled nanoscale doping of germanium,” Nanoscale 5(7), 2600–2615 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang, J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Res.

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photonics Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Virgilio, C. L. Manganelli, G. Grosso, G. Pizzi, G. Capellini, “Radiative recombination and optical gain spectra in biaxially strained n-type germanium,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235313 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Carroll, P. Friedli, S. Neuenschwander, H. Sigg, S. Cecchi, F. Isa, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Faist, “Direct-gap gain and optical absorption in germanium correlated to the density of photoexcited carriers, doping, and strain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 057402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. D’Costa, Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, J. Menéndez, “Tunable optical gap at a fixed lattice constant in group-IV semiconductor alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films

Y. Yamamoto, G. Kozlowski, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, “Low threading dislocation Ge on Si by combining deposition and etching,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3216–3221 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Gamble, B. M. Armstrong, P. T. Baine, Y. H. Low, P. V. Rainey, S. J. N. Mitchell, and D. W. McNeill, Germanium Processing (Springer, 2011), pp. 3–29.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of representative CMOS-fabricated microstripes; [110]-oriented (parallel to the image side) and [100] (45° rotated) “I” and “H” structures are visible. (b) SEM image of a FIB cross section performed on 1 µm wide microstripe revealing its layered structure; (c) COMSOL scheme used to model the strain distribution in H structures. The origin of the z-axis is set at the Ge/Si interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Equivalent biaxial strain values as calculated in a (y,z) plane at the center (xc = 10 µm) of a 20 µm long and 2 µm wide H-type Ge microstripe. Isolines describe the displacement field due to the stress relaxation. (b) Diagonal components of the strain tensor calculated at the SiN/Ge interface along the x-axis of a H-type (blue) and a I-type (red) microstructure having w = 2 µm and l = 20 µm. The resulting equivalent biaxial strain is reported as continuous line. (c) Strain profile along the x axis of a w = 2 µm, l = 90 µm H-type microstructure as measured by µRaman using a laser wavelength of λ = 488 nm (circles), λ = 514 nm (triangle), or λ = 633 nm (square). We also display the calculated strain profile at the SiN/Ge interface (continuous line) or 225 nm below this (dashed line). (d) Strain profile obtained by µ-Raman (λ = 514 nm) on a l = 90, w = 2 H-type oriented along [110](square) and [100] (diamond) and from simulation (values at the SiN/Ge interface, solid line)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL measurements on microstripes having w = 2 µm and lengths as indicated in the plots: (a) H structures, (b) I structures; the curves have been offset for clarity. The signal amplitudes are on the same scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Equivalent biaxial strain as predicted by COMSOL simulation at the SiN/Ge interface (solid lines), obtained by PL measurement (filled symbols), and µ-Raman (open) for H (blue) and I structures (red) having w = 2 µm and different lengths. On the right axis the corresponding peak energy are also reported. The point at l = 0 represents the unpatterned region; (b) equivalent biaxial strain as predicted by COMSOL simulations at the SiN/Ge interface (solid line) and obtained by PL measurement (circle) as a function of the width in H-structures with l = 90 µm. (c) Dependence of the integrated PL intensity as a function of biaxial strain. The solid line corresponds to the modeling results. (d) PL spectra obtained on two H-type structures having w = 2 µm l = 90 µm and the different x-axis orientations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral absorption coefficient calculated for εbi = 7 × 10−3 and ndop = 4 × 1019 cm−3, in both TE (left) and TM (right) polarizations and for the different excess carrier densities δn reported in the left panel (cm−3).

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