Abstract

Silver nanoparticles synthesized in a synthetic sapphire matrix were fabricated by ion implantation using the metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. The optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 composite material has been measured. The analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum displayed the nonlinear refractive property of this kind of sample. Nonlinear optical refraction index was identified at 800 nm excitation using the Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) technique. The spectrum showed that the material possessed self-defocusing property (n2 = −1.1 × 10−15 cm2/W). The mechanism of nonlinear refraction has been discussed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Lee, K. C. Choi, D. H. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled sliver particles,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13209–13217 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: A review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 27, 115–145 (2011).
  4. M. Sheik-Bahae, “Femtosecond Kerr-lens autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 399–401 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order x (2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 294–298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).
  10. Q. Wan, T. H. Wang, C. L. Lin, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and negative photoconductivity of Ge nanocrystals in Al2O3 dielectric,” Nanotechnology 14(11), L15–L17 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: A review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 27, 115–145 (2011).

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lee, K. C. Choi, D. H. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled sliver particles,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13209–13217 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wan, T. H. Wang, C. L. Lin, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and negative photoconductivity of Ge nanocrystals in Al2O3 dielectric,” Nanotechnology 14(11), L15–L17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order x (2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, “Femtosecond Kerr-lens autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 399–401 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alves, E.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boltaev, G. S.

R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Chen, X. F.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Chin, S. L.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. C.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Crespo-Sosa, A.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, R. C.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order x (2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Hernández, R. C.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

Jiang, L. W.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Jiménez-Hernández, J. L.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kim, D. H.

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

Li, H. J.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Lin, C. L.

Q. Wan, T. H. Wang, C. L. Lin, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and negative photoconductivity of Ge nanocrystals in Al2O3 dielectric,” Nanotechnology 14(11), L15–L17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. Z.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Marques, C.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mota-Santiago, P. E.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, A.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

Sánchez-Dena, O.

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, “Femtosecond Kerr-lens autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 399–401 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order x (2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Stepanov, A. L.

A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: A review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 27, 115–145 (2011).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tugushev, R. I.

R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usmanov, T. U.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. N. Christodoulides, I. C. Khoo, G. J. Salamo, G. I. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption: mechanisms and magnitudes,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2(1), 60–200 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Q.

Q. Wan, T. H. Wang, C. L. Lin, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and negative photoconductivity of Ge nanocrystals in Al2O3 dielectric,” Nanotechnology 14(11), L15–L17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. H.

Q. Wan, T. H. Wang, C. L. Lin, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and negative photoconductivity of Ge nanocrystals in Al2O3 dielectric,” Nanotechnology 14(11), L15–L17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A.H.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Xu, J.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Zheng, Y. L.

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. A. Ganeev, G. S. Boltaev, R. I. Tugushev, T. Usmanov, “Nonlinear optical absorption and refraction in Ru, Pd, and Au nanoparticle suspensions,” Appl. Phys. B 100(3), 571–576 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77(2-3), 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. J. Chen, X. F. Chen, A.H. Wu, H. J. Li, Y. L. Zheng, Y. Z. Ma, L. W. Jiang, J. Xu, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of third-order nonlinear refractive indices of BaMgF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 191102 (2011).

Nanotechnology (1)

Q. Wan, T. H. Wang, C. L. Lin, “Third-order optical nonlinearity and negative photoconductivity of Ge nanocrystals in Al2O3 dielectric,” Nanotechnology 14(11), L15–L17 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Measurements of nonlinear refraction in the second-order x (2) materials KTiOPO4, KNbO3, β-BaB2O4, and LiB3O5,” Opt. Commun. 142(4-6), 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear refraction of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 253(1-3), 205–213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in “thick” media,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1228–1235 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc+. (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, T. U. Usmanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, E. Alves, “Investigation of the Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of Composite Materials Based on Sapphire with Silver, Copper, and Gold Nanoparticles by the Reflection Z-scan Method,” Opt. Spectrosc+. 101(4), 615–622 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. E. Mota-Santiago, A. Crespo-Sosa, J. L. Jiménez-Hernández, O. Sánchez-Dena, R. C. Fernández-Hernández, J. A. Reyes-Esqueda, A. Oliver, “Linear and non-linear optical properties of metallic nanocrystals in sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 8011, 80113V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. L. Stepanov, “Nonlinear optical properties of implanted metal nanoparticles in various transparent matrixes: A review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 27, 115–145 (2011).

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E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan Technique for Materials Characterization,” Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology, CR69, 501, SPIE (1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The Kerr-lens autocorrelation (KLAC) arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical absorption spectrum of the Ag: Al2O3 sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Supercontinuum spectra of Ag: Al2O3 sample compared to pump laser. The inserted shows profile of the beam throwing the Ag: Al2O3 sample in the far field.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a. Measured KLAC traces for Ag: Al2O3 sample when positioned at the peak and valley of the Z-scan. Figure 4(b). Measured Z-scan profile for a 2-mm-thick ZnS sample. The inserted is the KLAC trace with the sample positioned at the peak of the Z-scan.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 The characteristics of the Ag: Al2O3 sample used in the KLAC experiments

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Table 2 Comparison between the literature and our result

Equations (5)

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δω(τ)= 4π n 2 kz c × I(τ) τ
Δ T p (τ)=Δ T v (τ)0.203<Δ ϕ 0 >[ 2(1+ b 2 ) (1+b) 2 + 8b (1+b) 2 U(τ)]
<Δ ϕ 0 >= 2π λ 0 L eff n 2 I 01 + I 02 2 A
L eff = 2.706[ (L/ n 0 Z 0 +1) 1.44 1] (L/ n 0 Z 0 ) 1.44 +3.924
n 2 ( ω 10 ) A ( ω p ω 10 )( ω p ω 20 )

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