Abstract

We demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using a three-dimensional (3D) photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The hybrid device consists of a silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) coupled to a 3D waveguide circuit to multiplex/demultiplex OAM states. The low excess loss hybrid device is used in individual and two simultaneous OAM states multiplexing and demultiplexing link experiments with a 20 Gb/s, 1.67 b/s/Hz quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK) signal, which shows error-free performance for 379,960 tested bits for all OAM states.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Yao, M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
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  5. N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 913–924 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Elsevier, 2010).
  19. W. Steinchen and L. X. Yang, Digital Shearography: Theory and Application of Digital Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (SPIE, 2003), Vol. 100.
  20. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).
  22. I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks (Academic, 2010).
  23. S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 16(2), 804–817 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 2002).
  25. D. Mitić, A. Lebl, Ž. Markov, “Calculating the required number of bits in the function of confidence level and error probability estimation,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 9(3), 361–375 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction,” in High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies, M. Nakazawa, K. Kikuchi, and T. Miyazaki, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 303–333.

2013

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

D. Mitić, A. Lebl, Ž. Markov, “Calculating the required number of bits in the function of confidence level and error probability estimation,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 9(3), 361–375 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Winzer, “High-spectral-efficiency optical modulation formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3824–3835 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Su, R. P. Scott, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine, D. J. Geisler, X. Cai, S. J. B. Yoo, “Demonstration of free space coherent optical communication using integrated silicon photonic orbital angular momentum devices,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9396–9402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. M. Yao, M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

2005

2002

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 913–924 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, X.

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

Foschini, G. J.

Franke-Arnold, S.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geisler, D. J.

Goebel, B.

Hibino, Y.

Himeno, A.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 913–924 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 913–924 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Kramer, G.

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebl, A.

D. Mitić, A. Lebl, Ž. Markov, “Calculating the required number of bits in the function of confidence level and error probability estimation,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 9(3), 361–375 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Markov, Ž.

D. Mitić, A. Lebl, Ž. Markov, “Calculating the required number of bits in the function of confidence level and error probability estimation,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 9(3), 361–375 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mitic, D.

D. Mitić, A. Lebl, Ž. Markov, “Calculating the required number of bits in the function of confidence level and error probability estimation,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 9(3), 361–375 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miya, T.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 913–924 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nasu, Y.

Padgett, M. J.

A. M. Yao, M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

Scott, R. P.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, T.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, A. M.

A. M. Yao, M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photonics

A. M. Yao, M. J. Padgett, “Orbital angular momentum: origins, behavior and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 3(2), 161–204 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, “Silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4(6), 913–924 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photonics

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 22(5), 391–416 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Leach, M. J. Padgett, S. M. Barnett, S. Franke-Arnold, J. Courtial, “Measuring the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(25), 257901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serbian J. Electr. Eng.

D. Mitić, A. Lebl, Ž. Markov, “Calculating the required number of bits in the function of confidence level and error probability estimation,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 9(3), 361–375 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction,” in High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies, M. Nakazawa, K. Kikuchi, and T. Miyazaki, eds. (Springer, 2010), pp. 303–333.

A. Papoulis and S. U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

N. K. Fontaine, C. R. Doerr, and L. Buhl, “Efficient multiplexing and demultiplexing of free-space orbital angular momentum using photonic integrated circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), OTu1I.2.
[CrossRef]

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2008).

I. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks (Academic, 2010).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Elsevier, 2010).

W. Steinchen and L. X. Yang, Digital Shearography: Theory and Application of Digital Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (SPIE, 2003), Vol. 100.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. Macpherson, J. S. Barton, D. T. Reid, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of a three-dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling applications,” in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (Optical Society of America, 2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, and S. H. Nawab, Signals and Systems (Prentice-Hall, 1983), Vol. 2.

B. Guan, R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Integrated optical orbital angular momentum multiplexing device using 3-D waveguides and a silica PLC,” in CLEO:2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), CTu1L.4.

R. P. Scott, B. Guan, C. Qin, N. K. Fontaine, T. Su, C. Ferrari, M. Cappuzzo, F. Klemens, B. Keller, M. Earnshaw, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Free-space coherent optical communication demonstration using a 3D photonic integrated circuit device for orbital angular momentum multiplexing/demultiplexing,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), Tu.3.B.2.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of the OAM photonic integrated circuit for multiplexing or demultiplexing free-space OAM beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual view of the hybrid photonic integrated device for OAM state multiplexing and demultiplexing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated device details. (a) Silica PLC image. (b) Measured mode profile of the silica PLC output waveguides (17 outputs). (c) 3D waveguide output facet image before polishing. (d) Measured mode profile of the light beams at the output of the 3D waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured and simulated loss distribution for the output waveguides of the silica PLC (OAM state 0 as input). (b) Measured excess loss for the silica PLC and insertion loss of the 3D waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental arrangement for OAM device intensity and phase characterization. (b) Near-field intensity and phase before and after phase-error correction is applied for OAM state 0 (flat phase). (c) Line plot of the measured near-field phase shown in (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integrated photonic circuit OAM state characterization results. (a) OAM state near-field phase pattern as a color map. (b) Line plots of the measured and unwrapped phase for each OAM state.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Crosstalk experimental setup. (b) An example of how the lens and mirror reflection change the beam pattern. (c) Measured crosstalk for OAM state n to m.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

10-GBd QPSK link experimental arrangement using a retro-reflecting free-space link. EAWG: electrical arbitrary waveform generator. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier. PC: polarization controller. ATT: attenuator. BPF: bandpass filter. AOM: acousto-optic modulator. WSS: wavelength selective switch.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Link performance for a single transmitted OAM state. (a) BER performance for a 10-GBd QPSK link using OAM states + 1, + 2,..., + 7. (b) Constellation plots at 25 dB, 15 dB and 9 dB OSNR.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Link performance for two simultaneous OAM states with varying amounts of crosstalk. (a) BER performance for a 10-GBd QPSK link using OAM state + 1 to −1 with, and without, other states (interferer) present. (b) BER performance for a 10-GBd QPSK link using OAM state + 3 to −3 with, and without, other states (interferer) present.

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