Abstract

Room-temperature continuous-wave operation for buried heterostructure 4.6µm quantum cascade laser Y-junctions and tree arrays, overgrown using hydride vapor phase epitaxy, has been demonstrated. Pulsed wall plug efficiency for the Y-junctions with bending radius of 5mm was measured to be very similar to that of single-emitter lasers from the same material, indicating low coupling losses. Comparison between model and experimental data showed that the in-phase mode was dominating for 10mm-long Y-junctions with 5µm-wide 1mm-long stem and 5µm-wide branches. Total optical power over 1.5W was demonstrated for four-branch QCL tree array.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, “λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. K. Hoffmann, M. Klinkmüller, E. Mujagić, M. P. Semtsiv, W. Schrenk, W. T. Masselink, G. Strasser, “Tree array quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 649–657 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Lourdudoss, O. Kjebon, “Hydride vapour phase epitaxy revisited,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 749–767 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, “λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Klinkmüller, E. Mujagić, M. P. Semtsiv, W. Schrenk, W. T. Masselink, G. Strasser, “Tree array quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 649–657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Lourdudoss, O. Kjebon, “Hydride vapour phase epitaxy revisited,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 749–767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. M.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Austerer, M.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benz, A.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, L. K.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Klinkmüller, E. Mujagić, M. P. Semtsiv, W. Schrenk, W. T. Masselink, G. Strasser, “Tree array quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 649–657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hurni, C. A.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kjebon, O.

S. Lourdudoss, O. Kjebon, “Hydride vapour phase epitaxy revisited,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 749–767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klang, P.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klinkmüller, M.

Lourdudoss, S.

S. Lourdudoss, O. Kjebon, “Hydride vapour phase epitaxy revisited,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 749–767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, “λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masselink, W. T.

Maulini, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, “λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mujagic, E.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Klinkmüller, E. Mujagić, M. P. Semtsiv, W. Schrenk, W. T. Masselink, G. Strasser, “Tree array quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 649–657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nobile, M.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, “λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pflugl, C.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schartner, S.

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Klinkmüller, E. Mujagić, M. P. Semtsiv, W. Schrenk, W. T. Masselink, G. Strasser, “Tree array quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 649–657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semtsiv, M. P.

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

L. K. Hoffmann, M. Klinkmüller, E. Mujagić, M. P. Semtsiv, W. Schrenk, W. T. Masselink, G. Strasser, “Tree array quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17(2), 649–657 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S.

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Multiwatt long wavelength quantum cascade lasers based on high strain composition with 70% injection efficiency,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24272–24279 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, C. K. N. Patel, “λ~7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Von Der Porten, S.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. Wang, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, “Room temperature quantum cascade lasers with 27% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 181102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Hoffmann, C. A. Hurni, S. Schartner, M. Austerer, E. Mujagić, M. Nobile, A. Benz, W. Schrenk, A. M. Andrews, P. Klang, G. Strasser, “Coherence in Y-coupled quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Lourdudoss, O. Kjebon, “Hydride vapour phase epitaxy revisited,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(3), 749–767 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7µm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Exp. 20(4), 4382 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, S. Von Der Porten, C. Pflugl, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, C. K. N. Patel, “High-performance continuous-wave room temperature 4.0-µm quantum cascade lasers with single-facet optical emission exceeding 2 W,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107(44), 18799–18802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the tree-array configuration. LS, LJ, and LE are length of stem, Y-junction coupling section, and elements (branches), respectively, 2ρ is width of the elements, and d is interelement spacing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross sectional SEM picture of a four element array. Active region thickness – 1.8µm; interelement spacing - 10µm (b) cross sectional SEM picture of a Y-junction at the merge section. Active region thickness – 1.8µm; interelement spacing - 2µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulsed optical power vs. current characteristics of a 5µm x 10mm single-element and 10mm Y-junction with bending radius Rb of 5mm and 5µm-thick branches and stem.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Near field intensity distribution at the laser facet of a Y-junction QCL (CW operation). (b) CW Far field intensity distribution for the same laser as in Fig. 4(a) taken at 1.9A. Triangles – experiment, solid red line – model. Inset shows CW optical power vs. current characteristics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

L-I-V characteristics of a four-element QCL tree array. Optical power was limited by the current driver.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Far field intensity distribution for the same laser as in Fig. 5 (CW operation; 400mW). Red line – experiment, black line – model.

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