Abstract

We demonstrate a 3x1 fiber-based photonic lantern spatial-multiplexer with mode-selectivity greater than 6 dB and transmission loss of less than 0.3 dB. The total insertion loss of the mode-selective multiplexers when coupled to a graded-index few-mode fiber was < 2 dB. These mode multiplexers showed mode-dependent loss below 0.5 dB. To our knowledge these are the lowest insertion and mode-dependent loss devices, which are also fully compatible with conventional few-mode fiber technology and broadband operation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space Division Multiplexing in Optical Fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, “Tapered Velocity Mode-Selective Couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(13), 2163–2169 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, P. Wang, J. Yang, “Mode multi/demultiplexer based on cascaded asymmetric Y-junctions,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25113–25119 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1995 (1)

1982 (1)

Akamatsu, T.

Argyros, A.

Berdagué, S.

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolle, C. A.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burrows, E. C.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chen, W.

Culverhouse, D. O.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Esmaeelpour, M.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Facq, P.

Farwell, S. G.

Fini, J. M.

Fishteyn, M.

Fontaine, N. K.

Foschini, G. J.

Gnauck, A. H.

Goebel, B.

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, I.

Kern, P.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, P. Kern, “Molding the flow of light: photonics in astronomy,” Phys. Today 65(5), 31–37 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kosihba, M.

Kramer, G.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, K.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lingle, R.

Liu, X.

Love, J. D.

Matsuo, S.

McCurdy, A.

Monberg, E. M.

Mumtaz, S.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space Division Multiplexing in Optical Fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. D.

Noordegraaf, D.

Okuyama, K.

Peckham, D. W.

Pham, A.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space Division Multiplexing in Optical Fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Riesen, N.

Russell, P. St. J.

Ryf, R.

Saitoh, K.

Sasaki, Y.

Sierra, A.

Skovgaard, P. M.

Takenaga, K.

Taunay, T. F.

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, P.

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winzer, P. J.

Witkowska, A.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, J.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, L. E. Nelson, “Space Division Multiplexing in Optical Fibers,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Today (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, P. Kern, “Molding the flow of light: photonics in astronomy,” Phys. Today 65(5), 31–37 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, S. Randel, X. Palou, A. H. Gnauck, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Combined SDM and WDM transmission over 700-km Few-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1I.2.
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Ryf, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-Selective Dissimilar Fiber Photonic-Lantern Spatial Multiplexers for Few-Mode Fiber,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1.C.3.
[CrossRef]

S. Yerolatsitis and T. A. Birks, “Three-Mode Multiplexer in Photonic Crystal Fibre,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Mo.4.A.4.

D. O. Culverhouse, T. A. Birks, S. G. Farwell, and P. S. J. Russell, “All-fiber 3 × 3 acousto-optic switch,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, J. Bowers, D. Miller, D. Scifres, and A. Weiner, eds., Vol. 9 of OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 1996), paper CWK4.

W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

N. K. Fontaine and R. Ryf, “Characterization of Mode-Dependent Loss of Laser Inscribed Photonic Lanterns for Space Division Multiplexing Systems,” in 2013 18th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference held jointly with 2013 International Conference on Photonics in Switching, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper MR2_2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of a photonic lantern spatial-multiplexer (SMUX) 3-mode fiber system. Black solid boxes enclose mode groups used in a 3-mode fiber transmission system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modal analysis of A) a conventional 3-SMF photonic lantern, B) a mode-selective 3-SMF photonic lantern, and C) a mode-selective 6-SMF photonic lantern. (Left A,B and C) Schematics of FMF end of the modelled photonic lanterns showing the different cores sizes corresponding to the similar/dissimilar fibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode-selective photonic lantern SMUX tapered transition. (top panel) Cross-section images at the same scale at different point along the length of the tapered transition. (bottom panel) Image of the whole tapered photonic lantern transition profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photonic lanterns FMF output profiles. (A) (left) Microscope image detail of the 3-fiber conventional lantern with visible light back illumination; (right) images of the FMF output of a conventional lantern while input coupling into three of the identical fibers one at the time. (B) (left) Microscope image detail of the 3-fiber mode-selective lantern output with visible light back illumination; (right) images of the FMF output of the mode-selective lantern while input coupling into three of the fibers one at the time. (C) Simulated LP01 and LP11 mode profiles of the expected FMF triangular shape core obtained from fusing the three fibers together along the tapered transition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Output field profiles of 30 m graded-index FMF fed by the photonic lantern SMUX coupling into different fiber at the time. (B) Transfer matrix of the photonic lantern SMUX in reflection mode. Clear cells show the LP01 to LP01 (top left corner) and the LP11 to LP11 (four cells in the bottom right corner) coupling matrix cells. Grey cells show the cross-talk matrix cells.

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