Abstract

Hydrogen generation through water splitting by n-InGaN working electrodes with bias generated from GaAs solar cell was studied. Instead of using an external bias provided by power supply, a GaAs-based solar cell was used as the driving force to increase the rate of hydrogen production. The water-splitting system was tuned using different approaches to set the operating points to the maximum power point of the GaAs solar cell. The approaches included changing the electrolytes, varying the light intensity, and introducing the immersed ITO ohmic contacts on the working electrodes. As a result, the hybrid system comprising both InGaN-based working electrodes and GaAs solar cells operating under concentrated illumination could possibly facilitate efficient water splitting.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 162107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Liu, Y. C. Lin, J. C. Ye, S. J. Tu, F. W. Huang, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, “Hydrogen gas generation using n-GaN photoelectrodes with immersed Indium Tin Oxide ohmic contacts,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1196–A1201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, C. C. Hu, “Non-alloyed Cr/Au Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Currao, “Photoelectrochemical water splitting,” Chimia (Aarau) 61(12), 815–819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

O. Khaselev, J. A. Turner, “A monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical device for hydrogen production via water splitting,” Science 280(5362), 425–427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. Siegel, T. Schott, “Optimization of photovoltaic hydrogen production,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 13(11), 659–675 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. Fujishima, K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature 238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aryal, K.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. M.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Currao, A.

A. Currao, “Photoelectrochemical water splitting,” Chimia (Aarau) 61(12), 815–819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

A. Fujishima, K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature 238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gust, D.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Pagan, E. A.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirako, A.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hoertz, P. G.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, K.

A. Fujishima, K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature 238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C. C.

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, C. C. Hu, “Non-alloyed Cr/Au Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F. W.

Ito, T.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwaki, Y.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kako, T.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaselev, O.

O. Khaselev, J. A. Turner, “A monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical device for hydrogen production via water splitting,” Science 280(5362), 425–427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikugawa, N.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. C.

Lal, R.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

Lee, S. H. A.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Liu, B.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

Liu, Y.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, W.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T. E.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. L.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, T. A.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohkawa, K.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ono, M.

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, S.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantha, B. N.

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schott, T.

A. Siegel, T. Schott, “Optimization of photovoltaic hydrogen production,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 13(11), 659–675 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Siegel, A.

A. Siegel, T. Schott, “Optimization of photovoltaic hydrogen production,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 13(11), 659–675 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stuart-Williams, H.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. K.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tu, S. J.

Turner, J. A.

O. Khaselev, J. A. Turner, “A monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical device for hydrogen production via water splitting,” Science 280(5362), 425–427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waki, I.

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Withers, R. L.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

Yi, Z.

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youngblood, W. J.

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Z.

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

I. Waki, D. Cohen, R. Lal, U. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Direct water photoelectrolysis with patterned n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093519 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Direct hydrogen gas generation by using InGaN epilayers as working electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(16), 162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, “Small band gap bowing in In1−xGaxN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(25), 4741 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Luo, B. Liu, Z. Li, Z. Xie, D. Chen, Z. Zou, R. Zhang, “Stable response to visible light of InGaN photoelectrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 262110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Aryal, B. N. Pantha, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Hydrogen generation by solar water splitting using p-InGaN photoelectrochemical cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 052110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Luo, B. Liu, X. Zhao, Z. Li, D. Chen, T. Yu, Z. Xie, R. Zhang, Z. Zou, “Remarkable enhancement in photocurrent of In0.20Ga0.80N photoanode by using an electrochemical surface treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 112108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Lee, J. K. Sheu, C. C. Hu, “Non-alloyed Cr/Au Ohmic contacts to n-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chimia (Aarau) (1)

A. Currao, “Photoelectrochemical water splitting,” Chimia (Aarau) 61(12), 815–819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (1)

A. Siegel, T. Schott, “Optimization of photovoltaic hydrogen production,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 13(11), 659–675 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. J. Youngblood, S. H. A. Lee, Y. Kobayashi, E. A. Hernandez-Pagan, P. G. Hoertz, T. A. Moore, A. L. Moore, D. Gust, T. E. Mallouk, “Photoassisted overall water splitting in a visible light-absorbing dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 926–927 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

K. Fujii, M. Ono, T. Ito, Y. Iwaki, A. Hirako, K. Ohkawa, “Band-edge energies and photoelectrochemical properties of n-Type AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154(2), B175–B179 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Z. Yi, J. Ye, N. Kikugawa, T. Kako, S. Ouyang, H. Stuart-Williams, H. Yang, J. Cao, W. Luo, Z. Li, Y. Liu, R. L. Withers, “An orthophosphate semiconductor with photooxidation properties under visible-light irradiation,” Nat. Mater. 9(7), 559–564 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. Fujishima, K. Honda, “Electrochemical photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrode,” Nature 238(5358), 37–38 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Science (1)

O. Khaselev, J. A. Turner, “A monolithic photovoltaic-photoelectrochemical device for hydrogen production via water splitting,” Science 280(5362), 425–427 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, “The indium tin oxide Ohmic contact to highly doped n-GaN,” Solid-State Electron. 43(11), 2081–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layer structures of the working electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup of water splitting via the n-InGaN photoanode with assisted bias generated from GaAs solar cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)typical photocurrents with different electrolytes were marked on the I-V curve of the GaAs solar cell (b) typical spectral response taken from the PEC cells with working electrode made of n-In0.15Ga0.85N/n-GaN heterostructure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical photocurrents obtained with different incident light intensities were marked on the I-V curve of the GaAs solar cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical photocurrents of the PEC cells with and without the immersed ITO fingers were marked on the I-V curve of the GaAs solar cell.

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