Abstract

We propose a dual-layer transparent Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) top electrode scheme and demonstrate the enhancement of the optical output power of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The proposed dual-layer structure is composed of a layer with randomly distributed sphere-like nano-patterns obtained solely by a maskless wet etching process and a pre-annealed bottom layer to maintain current spreading of the electrode. It was observed that the surface morphologies and optoelectronic properties are dependent on etching duration. This electrode significantly improves the optical output power of GaN-based LEDs with an enhancement factor of 2.18 at 100 mA without degradation in electrical property when compared to a reference LED.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. X. Fu, B. Zhang, X. N. Kang, J. J. Deng, C. Xiong, T. Dai, X. Z. Jiang, T. J. Yu, Z. Z. Chen, G. Y. Zhang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals structures fabricated by porous anodic alumina template,” Opt. Express 19(S5Suppl 5), A1104–A1108 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K.-J. Byeon, J.-Y. Cho, J. Kim, H. Park, H. Lee, “Fabrication of SiNx-based photonic crystals on GaN-based LED devices with patterned sapphire substrate by nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11423–11432 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micro lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. P. Vasudev, J. A. Schuller, M. L. Brongersma, “Nanophotonic light trapping with patterned transparent conductive oxides,” Opt. Express 20(S3), A385–A394 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baarslag, P. C.

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Byeon, K.-J.

Chen, Z. Z.

Cho, J.-Y.

Choi, H. W.

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micro lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daams, J. L. C.

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dai, T.

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. J.

Döhler, G. H.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. M.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X. X.

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. T.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. Z.

Jung, G. Y.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. N.

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-M.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Lee, T.

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leem, D.-S.

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. H.

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micro lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. M.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

Schoberth, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

Seong, T.-Y.

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tu, R. C.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van den Meerakker, J. E. A. M.

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vasudev, A. P.

Vink, T. J.

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walrave, W.

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

Yang, C. C.

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, R. C.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, G. Y.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micro lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3885 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, D. S. Wuu, “GaN based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(22), 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, K. H. Li, H. W. Choi, “InGaN light-emitting diodes with indium-tin-oxide sub-micro lenses patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, J. T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(5), 649–651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, P. Heremans, “40% Efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Solid-State Electron.

D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron. 51(5), 793 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, P. C. Baarslag, W. Walrave, T. J. Vink, J. L. C. Daams, “On the homogeneity of sputter-deposited ITO films Part II. Etching behaviour,” Thin Solid Films 266(2), 152–156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of LEDs with (a) single-layer ITO electrode, and (b) dual-layer ITO electrode. The dual layer ITO has an additional current spreading layer to maintain good electronic conduction during device operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The SEM images of (a) SL400, (b) SL800, and (c) DL400/400 ITO surface morphologies with various dip wet-etching time, from as-deposited to 120 seconds of etching time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The evolution of sheet resistance of SL400, SL800, and DL400/400 ITO electrode as a function of dip wet-etching time; (b) The evolution of sheet resistance vs. etching time for 200, 300, and 400 nm-thick of the dense bottom ITO layer. (c) The current-voltage-current curve for LEDs with DL400/400 ITO electrode etched for various times.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The variation of light intensity between DL400/400 ITO-electrode LEDs with different ITO surface morphologies achieved by increasing etching time; (b) The comparison of light intensity between a reference LED with un-etched ITO electrode and an LET with DL400/400 electrode. The light intensity was much higher for the dual-layer LED than for the reference LED at all wavelengths; (c) The AFM surface morphology of the top ITO layer after wet dip-etching for 60 seconds with the average size of nano-bumps to be 63.7 nm.

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