Abstract

An experimental study has been conducted to assess the feasibility of implementing laser ignition in cryogenic reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters. A experimental thruster with a single-coaxial injector element combustion chamber for testing with liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen/gaseous methane was designed for this purpose. Mapping tests conducted using a standard table top laser revealed that the minimum incident energies required for 100% reliable laser plasma and laser ablation ignition of liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen are 72 mJ and 14.5 mJ respectively. In addition, the miniaturised HIPoLas® laser was mounted directly on the thruster and used as ignition system. This paper reports locations of energy deposition, levels of delivered energy and associated ignition probabilities obtained. The results indicate the feasibility of using a laser system for the direct ignition of reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters and highlight further investigations and developments necessary for the implementation of miniaturised laser systems for vacuum igntion of cryogenic propellants.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. European Chemical Agency agreement, “Agreement of the memeber state committee on the identification of hydrazine as a substance of very high concern” (European Chemical Agency, 2011). http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/b3561467-aa0f-4551-9dff-dcdc5ba60eec .
  2. C. Scharlemann, “GRAPS - analysis of green propellant candidates,” presented at the 62nd International Astronautical Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, 3 - 7 October 2011.
  3. A. Woschnak, “Development of a green bi-propellant hydrogen peroxide thruster for attitude control on satellites,” presented at the 4th European Conference for Aerospace Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 4 - 8 July 2011.
  4. W. H. M. Welland, B. M. J. Brauers, E. J. Vermeulen, “Future igniter technologies,” presented at the Space Propulsion Conference, Bordeaux, France, 7 – 10 May 2010.
  5. P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.
  6. M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. McIntyre, A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine (West Virginia University, 2007).
  8. B.E. Forch, A.W. Miziolek, “Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasmas,” J. Combustion, Science and Technology 52, 151–159 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B.E. Forch, “Resonant laser ignition of reactive gases,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, eds., Proc. SPIE 2122, 1118–1128 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. M. Weyl, “Physics of laser-induced breakdown: an update,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Academic, 1989), pp. 1–67.
  11. T. X. Phuoc, F. P. White, “An optical and spectroscopic study of laser-induced sparks to determine available ignition energy,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 1621–1628 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. I. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics (Academic, 1959).
  14. C. Manfletti, “Low ambient pressure injection and consequences on ignition of liquid rocket engines,” presented at the 48th Joint Propulsion Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 29 July – 1 August 2012.
  15. H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Marchione, S. F. Ahmed, E. Mastorakos, “Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks,” Combustion and Flame 156, 166–180 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.
  18. R. G. Root, “Modeling of post-breakdown phenomena,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Academic, 1989), pp. 69–103.
  19. K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

2005 (3)

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Marchione, S. F. Ahmed, E. Mastorakos, “Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks,” Combustion and Flame 156, 166–180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. X. Phuoc, F. P. White, “An optical and spectroscopic study of laser-induced sparks to determine available ignition energy,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 1621–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B.E. Forch, “Resonant laser ignition of reactive gases,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, eds., Proc. SPIE 2122, 1118–1128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

B.E. Forch, A.W. Miziolek, “Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasmas,” J. Combustion, Science and Technology 52, 151–159 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, S. F.

T. Marchione, S. F. Ahmed, E. Mastorakos, “Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks,” Combustion and Flame 156, 166–180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aigner, M.

G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.

Bahu, J. M.

P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.

Bradley, D.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brauers, B. M. J.

W. H. M. Welland, B. M. J. Brauers, E. J. Vermeulen, “Future igniter technologies,” presented at the Space Propulsion Conference, Bordeaux, France, 7 – 10 May 2010.

Caisso, P.

P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.

Caruana, J. N.

P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.

El-Rabii, H.

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, C.

P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.

Forch, B.E.

B.E. Forch, “Resonant laser ignition of reactive gases,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, eds., Proc. SPIE 2122, 1118–1128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B.E. Forch, A.W. Miziolek, “Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasmas,” J. Combustion, Science and Technology 52, 151–159 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gaborel, G.

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gebel, G.

G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.

Hasegawa, K.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

James, P.

P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.

Kopecek, H.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumakawa, A.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

Kusaka, K.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

Lackner, M.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lapois, J.-P.

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Brun, S.

G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.

Manfletti, C.

C. Manfletti, “Low ambient pressure injection and consequences on ignition of liquid rocket engines,” presented at the 48th Joint Propulsion Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 29 July – 1 August 2012.

Marchione, T.

T. Marchione, S. F. Ahmed, E. Mastorakos, “Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks,” Combustion and Flame 156, 166–180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mastorakos, E.

T. Marchione, S. F. Ahmed, E. Mastorakos, “Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks,” Combustion and Flame 156, 166–180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matin, J.-P.

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D. L.

D. L. McIntyre, A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine (West Virginia University, 2007).

Meier, W.

G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.

Miziolek, A.W.

B.E. Forch, A.W. Miziolek, “Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasmas,” J. Combustion, Science and Technology 52, 151–159 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mosbach, T.

G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.

Phuoc, T. X.

T. X. Phuoc, F. P. White, “An optical and spectroscopic study of laser-induced sparks to determine available ignition energy,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 1621–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rolon, J. C.

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Root, R. G.

R. G. Root, “Modeling of post-breakdown phenomena,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Academic, 1989), pp. 69–103.

Sato, M.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

Scharlemann, C.

C. Scharlemann, “GRAPS - analysis of green propellant candidates,” presented at the 62nd International Astronautical Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, 3 - 7 October 2011.

Sedov, L. I.

L. I. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics (Academic, 1959).

Sheppard, C. G. W.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suardjaja, I. M.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tadano, M.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

Tesch, M.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thevenin, D.

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, E. J.

W. H. M. Welland, B. M. J. Brauers, E. J. Vermeulen, “Future igniter technologies,” presented at the Space Propulsion Conference, Bordeaux, France, 7 – 10 May 2010.

Weinrotter, M.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welland, W. H. M.

W. H. M. Welland, B. M. J. Brauers, E. J. Vermeulen, “Future igniter technologies,” presented at the Space Propulsion Conference, Bordeaux, France, 7 – 10 May 2010.

Weyl, G. M.

G. M. Weyl, “Physics of laser-induced breakdown: an update,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Academic, 1989), pp. 1–67.

White, F. P.

T. X. Phuoc, F. P. White, “An optical and spectroscopic study of laser-induced sparks to determine available ignition energy,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 1621–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winter, F.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wintner, E.

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woolley, R.

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woschnak, A.

A. Woschnak, “Development of a green bi-propellant hydrogen peroxide thruster for attitude control on satellites,” presented at the 4th European Conference for Aerospace Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 4 - 8 July 2011.

Combustion and Flame (1)

T. Marchione, S. F. Ahmed, E. Mastorakos, “Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks,” Combustion and Flame 156, 166–180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science (1)

M. Weinrotter, H. Kopecek, M. Tesch, E. Wintner, M. Lackner, F. Winter, “Laser ignition of ultra-lean methane/hydrogen/air mixture at high temperature and pressure,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 29, 569–577 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Combustion and Flame (1)

D. Bradley, C. G. W. Sheppard, I. M. Suardjaja, R. Woolley, “Fundamentals of high-energy spark ignition with lasers,” J. Combustion and Flame 138, 55–77 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Combustion, Science and Technology (1)

B.E. Forch, A.W. Miziolek, “Ultraviolet laser ignition of premixed gases by efficient and resonant multiphoton photochemical formation of microplasmas,” J. Combustion, Science and Technology 52, 151–159 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II Proc. SPIE (1)

B.E. Forch, “Resonant laser ignition of reactive gases,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, eds., Proc. SPIE 2122, 1118–1128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Optics Communications (1)

H. El-Rabii, G. Gaborel, J.-P. Lapois, D. Thevenin, J. C. Rolon, J.-P. Matin, “Laser spark ignition of two-phase monodisperse mixtures,” Optics Communications 256, 495–506 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (1)

T. X. Phuoc, F. P. White, “An optical and spectroscopic study of laser-induced sparks to determine available ignition energy,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 29, 1621–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

L. I. Sedov, Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics (Academic, 1959).

C. Manfletti, “Low ambient pressure injection and consequences on ignition of liquid rocket engines,” presented at the 48th Joint Propulsion Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 29 July – 1 August 2012.

G. Gebel, T. Mosbach, M. Aigner, W. Meier, S. Le Brun, “An experimental investigation of kerosene droplet breakup by laser-induced blast waves,” presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Copenhagen, Denmark, 11 – 15 June 2012.

R. G. Root, “Modeling of post-breakdown phenomena,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Academic, 1989), pp. 69–103.

K. Hasegawa, K. Kusaka, A. Kumakawa, M. Sato, M. Tadano, “Laser ignition characteristics of GOX/GH2 and GOX/GCH4 propellants,” presented at the 39th Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, Alabama, 20 – 23 July 2003.

G. M. Weyl, “Physics of laser-induced breakdown: an update,” in Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds. (Academic, 1989), pp. 1–67.

D. L. McIntyre, A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine (West Virginia University, 2007).

European Chemical Agency agreement, “Agreement of the memeber state committee on the identification of hydrazine as a substance of very high concern” (European Chemical Agency, 2011). http://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/b3561467-aa0f-4551-9dff-dcdc5ba60eec .

C. Scharlemann, “GRAPS - analysis of green propellant candidates,” presented at the 62nd International Astronautical Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, 3 - 7 October 2011.

A. Woschnak, “Development of a green bi-propellant hydrogen peroxide thruster for attitude control on satellites,” presented at the 4th European Conference for Aerospace Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 4 - 8 July 2011.

W. H. M. Welland, B. M. J. Brauers, E. J. Vermeulen, “Future igniter technologies,” presented at the Space Propulsion Conference, Bordeaux, France, 7 – 10 May 2010.

P. James, C. Fiorentino, P. Caisso, J. N. Caruana, J. M. Bahu, “Technological readiness of the Vinci expander engine,” presented at the 59th International Astronautical Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, 29 Sept. – 3 Oct. 2008.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental thruster geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical path: table-top laser to experimental thruster.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left: laser chamber; right: laser with protective housing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental thruster equipped with the HiPoLas® laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical diagnotic set-up.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spray image LOx/GH2 prior to ignition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Combustion chamber flow field with HiPoLas® laser plasma ignition regions for LOx/GH2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Metal target location, laser beam focusing for ablation testing and plasma propagation for low energies delivered.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Engine cycle numbers depending on application

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental thruster geometry

Tables Icon

Table 3 Laser system characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 4 Propellant feed conditions and combustion chamber pressure levels during testing

Tables Icon

Table 5 Oxygen-hydrogen energy deposition and ignition probabilities

Metrics