Abstract

We demonstrated the efficiency improvement of GaAs single-junction (SJ) solar cells with the single-material zinc sulfide (ZnS) bi-layer based on the porous/dense film structure, which was fabricated by the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method, as an antireflection (AR) coating layer. The porous ZnS film with a low refractive index was formed at a high incident vapor flux angle of 80° in the GLAD. Each optimum thickness of ZnS bi-layer was determined by achieving the lowest solar weighted reflectance (SWR) using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method in the wavelength region of 350-900 nm, extracting the thicknesses of 20 and 50 nm for dense and porous films, respectively. The ZnS bi-layer with a low SWR of ~5.8% considerably increased the short circuit current density (Jsc) of the GaAs SJ solar cell to 25.57 mA/cm2, which leads to a larger conversion efficiency (η) of 20.61% compared to the conventional one without AR layer (i.e., SWR~31%, Jsc = 18.81 mA/cm2, and η = 14.82%). Furthermore, after the encapsulation, its Jsc and η values were slightly increased to 25.67 mA/cm2 and 20.71%, respectively. For the fabricated solar cells, angle-dependent reflectance properties and external quantum efficiency were also studied.

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  3. J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
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  4. H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
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  5. L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

C. A. Lin, K. Y. Lai, W. C. Lien, J. H. He, “An efficient broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting scheme employing a hierarchical structure based on a ZnO nanorod/Si3N4-coated Si microgroove on 5-inch single crystalline Si solar cells,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6520–6526 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A108–A117 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Leem, J. S. Yu, “Glancing angle deposited ITO films for efficiency enhancement of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S3Suppl 3), A258–A268 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

M. M. Hawkeye, M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Buie, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, C. J. Dey, “Full day simulations of anti-reflection coatings for flat plate silicon photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Nagel, A. G. Aberle, R. Hezel, “Optimized antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 7(4), 245–260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE 2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aberle, A. G.

H. Nagel, A. G. Aberle, R. Hezel, “Optimized antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 7(4), 245–260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

M. M. Hawkeye, M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buie, D.

D. Buie, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, C. J. Dey, “Full day simulations of anti-reflection coatings for flat plate silicon photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, E. Y.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, Y. C.

Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chiu, C. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Y. A.

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dey, C. J.

D. Buie, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, C. J. Dey, “Full day simulations of anti-reflection coatings for flat plate silicon photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, P. H.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hawkeye, M. M.

M. M. Hawkeye, M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J. H.

C. A. Lin, K. Y. Lai, W. C. Lien, J. H. He, “An efficient broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting scheme employing a hierarchical structure based on a ZnO nanorod/Si3N4-coated Si microgroove on 5-inch single crystalline Si solar cells,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6520–6526 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hezel, R.

H. Nagel, A. G. Aberle, R. Hezel, “Optimized antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 7(4), 245–260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. H.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsing, M. K.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, S. H.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. H.

Hwangbo, C. K.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. J.

Jen, Y. J.

Jun, D. H.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C. F.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, H. K.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. Z.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Kim, T. G.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Ko, C. G.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, M. L.

Lai, K. Y.

C. A. Lin, K. Y. Lai, W. C. Lien, J. H. He, “An efficient broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting scheme employing a hierarchical structure based on a ZnO nanorod/Si3N4-coated Si microgroove on 5-inch single crystalline Si solar cells,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6520–6526 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, J. H. Huang, K. Y. Lai, Y. J. Jen, C. P. Liu, J. H. He, “Giant optical anisotropy of oblique-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2015–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE 2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. G.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. P.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Leem, J. W.

Li, X.

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lien, D. H.

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lien, W. C.

C. A. Lin, K. Y. Lai, W. C. Lien, J. H. He, “An efficient broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting scheme employing a hierarchical structure based on a ZnO nanorod/Si3N4-coated Si microgroove on 5-inch single crystalline Si solar cells,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6520–6526 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. A.

C. A. Lin, K. Y. Lai, W. C. Lien, J. H. He, “An efficient broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting scheme employing a hierarchical structure based on a ZnO nanorod/Si3N4-coated Si microgroove on 5-inch single crystalline Si solar cells,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6520–6526 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. J.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, C. P.

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

McCann, M. J.

D. Buie, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, C. J. Dey, “Full day simulations of anti-reflection coatings for flat plate silicon photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE 2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, H.

H. Nagel, A. G. Aberle, R. Hezel, “Optimized antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 7(4), 245–260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. Y.

Park, W. K.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

Sahoo, K. C.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, S. Y. Lin, “Realization of a near-perfect antireflection coating for silicon solar energy utilization,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2527–2529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Shao, J.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. B.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, K.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. C.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Sobahan, K. M. A.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Wang, H. H.

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. J.

D. Buie, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, C. J. Dey, “Full day simulations of anti-reflection coatings for flat plate silicon photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xia, G.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. S.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, L. K.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, C. I.

Yu, J. C.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, P.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Y.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Giant efficiency enhancement of GaAs solar cells with graded antireflection layers based on syringelike ZnO nanorod arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

P. Yu, C. H. Chang, C. H. Chiu, C. S. Yang, J. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. H. Hsu, Y. C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective indium tin oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

S. Wang, X. Fu, G. Xia, J. Wang, J. Shao, Z. Fan, “Structural and optical ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8734–8737 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci.

Y. C. Chao, C. Y. Chen, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Light scattering by nanostructured anti-reflection coatings,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(9), 3436–3441 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Chang, K. Y. Lai, Y. A. Dai, H. H. Wang, C. A. Lin, J. H. He, “Nanowire arrays with controlled structure profiles for maximizing optical collection efficiency,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(8), 2863–2869 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

K. C. Sahoo, Y. Li, E. Y. Chang, “Shape effect of silicon nitride subwavelength structure on reflectance for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(10), 2427–2433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

Y. Zhong, Y. C. Shin, C. M. Kim, B. G. Lee, E. H. Kim, Y. J. Park, K. M. A. Sobahan, C. K. Hwangbo, Y. P. Lee, T. G. Kim, “Optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films with tilted and spiral microstructures prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Mater. Res. 23(09), 2500–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci.

D. H. Jun, C. Z. Kim, H. Kim, H. B. Shin, H. K. Kang, W. K. Park, K. Shin, C. G. Ko, “The effect of growth temperature and substrate tilt angle on GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells,” J. Semiconductor Technol. Sci. 9(2), 91–97 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

M. M. Hawkeye, M. J. Brett, “Glancing angle deposition: Fabrication, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 25(5), 1317–1335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanoscale

C. A. Lin, K. Y. Lai, W. C. Lien, J. H. He, “An efficient broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting scheme employing a hierarchical structure based on a ZnO nanorod/Si3N4-coated Si microgroove on 5-inch single crystalline Si solar cells,” Nanoscale 4(20), 6520–6526 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, D. H. Lien, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, C. F. Kang, M. K. Hsing, K. Y. Lai, J. H. He, “Hierarchical structures consisting of SiO2 nanorods and p-GaN microdomes for efficiently harvesting solar energy for InGaN quantum well photovoltaic cells,” Nanoscale 4(23), 7346–7349 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Chen, J. Xu, L. Wang, X. Li, Y. Zhang, “Low-damage wet chemical etching for GaN-based visible-blind p-i-n detector,” Proc. SPIE 6621, 66211D, 66211D-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, G. M. Morris, “Design, fabrication and characterization of subwavelength periodic structures for semiconductor anti-reflection coating in the visible domain,” Proc. SPIE 2776, 300–309 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

H. Nagel, A. G. Aberle, R. Hezel, “Optimized antireflection coatings for planar silicon solar cells using remote PECVD silicon nitride and porous silicon dioxide,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 7(4), 245–260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

D. Buie, M. J. McCann, K. J. Weber, C. J. Dey, “Full day simulations of anti-reflection coatings for flat plate silicon photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 81(1), 13–24 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

SOPRA, N&K Database, http://refractiveindex.info , Accessed 1 Jan. (2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for depositing the ZnS films by GLAD method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) XRD patterns and (b) measured n and k of the deposited ZnS films on GaAs substrates at θα = 0 and 80°. The cross-sectional and top-view SEM images of the corresponding ZnS films are also shown in the inset of (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of the GaAs SJ solar cell epilayer structure with the ZnS bi-layer (θα = 80°/0°) and (b) calculated SWR as functions of ZnS film thicknesses at θα = 0 and 80°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated (dashed lines) and measured (solid lines) (a) reflectance spectra and (b) SWR as a function of θi for the GaAs SJ solar cells without AR layer and with the ZnS single- and bi-layer. The photograph of the corresponding samples and cross-sectional low- and high-magnification SEM images of the fabricated ZnS bi-layer on the GaAs SJ solar cell are shown in the inset of (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured J-V curves of the (a) unencapsulated and (b) encapsulated GaAs SJ solar cells without AR layer and with the ZnS single- and bi-layer. The EQE spectra of corresponding cells are shown in the insets of (a) and (b), respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured device characteristics of the GaAs SJ solar cells with different AR layers before and after the encapsulation.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SWR= 350nm 900nm S(λ)R(λ) 350nm 900nm S(λ) ,

Metrics