Abstract

We suggest a new type of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from their plasmon resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays whose electric field is localized between the adjacent metal elements. We calculate a substantial enhancement of the short-circuit photocurrent for photovoltaic layers as thin as 100–150 nm. We compare our light-trapping structures with conventional anti-reflecting coatings and demonstrate that our design approach is more efficient. We show that it may provide a general background for different types of broadband light-trapping structures compatible with large-area fabrication technologies for thin-film solar cells.

© 2013 osa

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2012 (4)

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Simovski, O. Luukkonen, “Tapered plasmonic waveguides with efficient and broadband field transmission,” Opt. Comm. 285, 3397–3402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1272–1276 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Horwitz, “Infrared refractive index of polyethylene and a polyethylene-based material,” Opt. Engineering 50, 093603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A.S. Shalin, “Optical antireflection of a medium by nanocrystal layers,” Quantum Electronic 41, 163–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

D. K. Kotter, S. D. Novack, W. D. Slafer, P. Pinhero, “Theory and manufacturing processes of solar nanoantenna electromagnetic collectors,” J. Solar Energy Engineering 132, 011014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Photon management by metal nanodisks in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, E. P. Li, “Surface plasmon enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Plasmonics 4, 107–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, D.-Yu Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mat. 20, 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Materials Science and Engineering R 40, 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1987 (1)

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,”IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Agrawal, M.

Aho, A.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, E. P. Li, “Surface plasmon enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Plasmonics 4, 107–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M.I.

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anikeev, S.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1272–1276 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Birkmire, R.W.

P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, R.

R. Brendel, Thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: Physics and Technology(Wiley-VCH, 2003).

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucher, C.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bykov, E.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, D. M.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1272–1276 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, P.

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carriga, M.

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93,191113 (2008).

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,”IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R. W.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, M.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deckman, H. W.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Durante-Rincon, C.A.

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faifer, V.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fay, S.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferlauto, A. S.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Dominguez, A. I.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferreira, G. M.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, G.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Materials Science and Engineering R 40, 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1272–1276 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, Y.

T. Negami, S. Nishiwaki, Y. Hashimoto, N. Kohara, “Effect of the absorber thickness on performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in: Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion,Vienna, Austria, May 12–15, 1998; 1181–1184.

Hass, G.

Hebling, C.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Materials Science and Engineering R 40, 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heine, C.

Hernandez, E.

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horwitz, J. W.

J. W. Horwitz, “Infrared refractive index of polyethylene and a polyethylene-based material,” Opt. Engineering 50, 093603 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, C. D.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Optical Materials 29, 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, D.-Yu Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mat. 20, 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kasarova, S. N.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Optical Materials 29, 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, K.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-Yu

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, D.-Yu Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mat. 20, 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-S.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, D.-Yu Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mat. 20, 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohara, N.

T. Negami, S. Nishiwaki, Y. Hashimoto, N. Kohara, “Effect of the absorber thickness on performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in: Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion,Vienna, Austria, May 12–15, 1998; 1181–1184.

Kotter, D. K.

D. K. Kotter, S. D. Novack, W. D. Slafer, P. Pinhero, “Theory and manufacturing processes of solar nanoantenna electromagnetic collectors,” J. Solar Energy Engineering 132, 011014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Photon management by metal nanodisks in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leon, M.

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. P.

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, E. P. Li, “Surface plasmon enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Plasmonics 4, 107–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Luque, A.

A. Marti, A. Luque, Next-Generation Photovoltaics(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2004).

Luukkonen, O.

C. Simovski, O. Luukkonen, “Tapered plasmonic waveguides with efficient and broadband field transmission,” Opt. Comm. 285, 3397–3402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S. B.

Marti, A.

A. Marti, A. Luque, Next-Generation Photovoltaics(Institute of Physics Publishing, 2004).

Martin-Cano, D.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriarty, T.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1272–1276 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, S.-I.

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, D.-Yu Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mat. 20, 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Negami, T.

T. Negami, S. Nishiwaki, Y. Hashimoto, N. Kohara, “Effect of the absorber thickness on performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in: Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion,Vienna, Austria, May 12–15, 1998; 1181–1184.

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells(Imperial College Press, 2003).

Nesterov, M. L.

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, E. Moreno, “Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry,” Optics Express 18, 754–764 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemi, T.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, I. D.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Optical Materials 29, 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishiwaki, S.

T. Negami, S. Nishiwaki, Y. Hashimoto, N. Kohara, “Effect of the absorber thickness on performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in: Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion,Vienna, Austria, May 12–15, 1998; 1181–1184.

Novack, S. D.

D. K. Kotter, S. D. Novack, W. D. Slafer, P. Pinhero, “Theory and manufacturing processes of solar nanoantenna electromagnetic collectors,” J. Solar Energy Engineering 132, 011014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K.

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, E. P. Li, “Surface plasmon enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Plasmonics 4, 107–113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paudel, T.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paulson, P.D.

P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, J. M.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

Pinhero, P.

D. K. Kotter, S. D. Novack, W. D. Slafer, P. Pinhero, “Theory and manufacturing processes of solar nanoantenna electromagnetic collectors,” J. Solar Energy Engineering 132, 011014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93,191113 (2008).

Polojärvi, V.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

Pudov, A.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Zh.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Photon management by metal nanodisks in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rudolf, H. M.

Salmi, J.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

Salzberg, C.

Schock, H.-W.

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Materials Science and Engineering R 40, 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, R. E. I.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shafarman, W.N.

P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shalin, A.S.

A.S. Shalin, “Optical antireflection of a medium by nanocrystal layers,” Quantum Electronic 41, 163–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Simovski, C.

C. Simovski, O. Luukkonen, “Tapered plasmonic waveguides with efficient and broadband field transmission,” Opt. Comm. 285, 3397–3402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slafer, W. D.

D. K. Kotter, S. D. Novack, W. D. Slafer, P. Pinhero, “Theory and manufacturing processes of solar nanoantenna electromagnetic collectors,” J. Solar Energy Engineering 132, 011014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, P. A.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spitznagel, J.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Fay, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451/452,518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sultanova, N. G.

S. N. Kasarova, N. G. Sultanova, C. D. Ivanov, I. D. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Optical Materials 29, 1481–1490 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, T.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tommila, J.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

Tukiainen, A.

J. Tommila, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, V. Polojärvi, J. Salmi, T. Niemi, M. Guina, “Moth-eye antireflection coating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography on 1 eV dilute nitride solar cell,” Prog. Photovoltaics: Res. Appl.(2012).
[CrossRef]

van de Groep, J.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van Lare, M.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Witzke, H.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wronski, C. R.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,”IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mat. (1)

S.-I. Na, S.-S. Kim, J. Jo, D.-Yu Kim, “Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes,” Adv. Mat. 20, 4061–4067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, M. L. Brongersma, “Design of plasmonic thin-film solar cells with broadband absorption enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3504–3509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1272–1276 (2011)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M.I. Alonso, M. Carriga, C.A. Durante-Rincon, E. Hernandez, M. Leon, “Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn(1−x)Se2amorphous alloys,” Appl. Phys. A 74, 659–664 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Effciency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 11111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 022104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93,191113 (2008).

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Photon management by metal nanodisks in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. lett. 94, 213102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 968–970 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,”IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29, 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P.D. Paulson, R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, “Optical characterization of CuIn1−xGaxSe2alloy thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 879–888 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Applied Phys. (1)

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. Deng, G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet,”J. Applied Phys. 92, 2424–2436 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

P. A. Spinelli, V. E. Ferry, J. van de Groep, M. van Lare, M. A. Verschuuren, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells,”J. Opt. 14, 024002 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Solar Energy Engineering (1)

D. K. Kotter, S. D. Novack, W. D. Slafer, P. Pinhero, “Theory and manufacturing processes of solar nanoantenna electromagnetic collectors,” J. Solar Energy Engineering 132, 011014 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Materials Science and Engineering R (1)

A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, H.-W. Schock, “Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook,” Materials Science and Engineering R 40, 1–46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Zh. Ren, K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12, 440–445 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 4391–4397 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mat. (1)

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mat. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Comm. (1)

C. Simovski, O. Luukkonen, “Tapered plasmonic waveguides with efficient and broadband field transmission,” Opt. Comm. 285, 3397–3402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Engineering (1)

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