Abstract

We investigate CZTSe films by polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy. The main peaks at 170 cm−1, and 195 cm−1 are found to have A symmetry. The Raman signal at 170 cm−1 is found to be composed of two modes at 168 cm−1 and 172 cm−1. We attribute these three Raman peaks to the three A symmetry modes predicted for kesterite ordered Cu2ZnSnSe4. The main Raman peak is asymmetrically broadened towards lower energies. Possible sources of the broadening are tested through temperature and depth dependent measurements. The broadening is attributed to phonon confinement effects related to the presence of lattice defects.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Siebentritt, S. Schorr, “Kesterites - a challenging material for solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(5), 512–519 (2012).
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  2. D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. K. Todorov, J. Tang, S. Bag, O. Gunawan, T. Gokmen, Y. Zhu, and D. B. Mitzi, “Beyond 11% Efficiency: Characteristics of State‐of‐the‐Art Cu2ZnSn (S, Se) 4 Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. (2012).
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  5. A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, “Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Persson, “Electronic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053710 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Botti, D. Kammerlander, M. A. L. Marques, “Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241915 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. B. M. Amiri, A. Postnikov, “Electronic structure and lattice dynamics in kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 from first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205204 (2010).
  14. T. Gürel, C. Sevik, T. Cagin, “Characterization of vibrational and mechanical properties of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 in kesterite and stannite structures,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).
  16. M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).
  21. S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, L. Ley, “The one phonon raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39(5), 625–629 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  24. I. H. Campbell, P. M. Fauchet, “The effect of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 58(10), 739–741 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Dumcenco, Y.-S. Huang, “The vibrational properties study of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals by using polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 35(3), 419–425 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Rudigier, T. Enzenhofer, R. Scheer, “Determination of the quality of CuInS2-based solar cells combining Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 480-481, 327–331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. L. Stancik, E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47(1), 66–69 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature-dependent study of the Raman A mode of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2170–2174 (2011).
  30. M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

D. Dumcenco, Y.-S. Huang, “The vibrational properties study of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals by using polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 35(3), 419–425 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Siebentritt, S. Schorr, “Kesterites - a challenging material for solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(5), 512–519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Botti, D. Kammerlander, M. A. L. Marques, “Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241915 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Gürel, C. Sevik, T. Cagin, “Characterization of vibrational and mechanical properties of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 in kesterite and stannite structures,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature-dependent study of the Raman A mode of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2170–2174 (2011).

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Persson, “Electronic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. B. M. Amiri, A. Postnikov, “Electronic structure and lattice dynamics in kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 from first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205204 (2010).

2009 (2)

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stancik, E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47(1), 66–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

2005 (1)

E. Rudigier, T. Enzenhofer, R. Scheer, “Determination of the quality of CuInS2-based solar cells combining Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 480-481, 327–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. H. Campbell, P. M. Fauchet, “The effect of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, L. Ley, “The one phonon raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, “Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adu, K. W.

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Albert, H. O.

B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Altosaar, M.

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Garcia, J.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amiri, N. B. M.

N. B. M. Amiri, A. Postnikov, “Electronic structure and lattice dynamics in kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 from first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205204 (2010).

Andrzejak, C.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aroyo, M. I.

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asahi, R.

J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydil, E. S.

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

Beall, C.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berger, M. G.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bermudez, V.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blackburn, J.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Botti, S.

S. Botti, D. Kammerlander, M. A. L. Marques, “Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241915 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brauns, E. B.

A. L. Stancik, E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47(1), 66–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cagin, T.

T. Gürel, C. Sevik, T. Cagin, “Characterization of vibrational and mechanical properties of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 in kesterite and stannite structures,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Calvo-Barrio, L.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, I. H.

I. H. Campbell, P. M. Fauchet, “The effect of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cantoro, M.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capillas, C.

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cococcioni, M.

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, “Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Dumcenco, D.

D. Dumcenco, Y.-S. Huang, “The vibrational properties study of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals by using polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 35(3), 419–425 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Eckert, B.

B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eklund, P. C.

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enzenhofer, T.

E. Rudigier, T. Enzenhofer, R. Scheer, “Determination of the quality of CuInS2-based solar cells combining Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 480-481, 327–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

I. H. Campbell, P. M. Fauchet, “The effect of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foggi, P.

B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fontané, X.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Free, M. L.

P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature-dependent study of the Raman A mode of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2170–2174 (2011).

Grand, P. P.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grossberg, M.

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gunawan, O.

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gürel, T.

T. Gürel, C. Sevik, T. Cagin, “Characterization of vibrational and mechanical properties of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 in kesterite and stannite structures,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gutierrez, H. R.

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

Gutiérrez, H. R.

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herino, R.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Himmetoglu, B.

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

Hofmann, S.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-S.

D. Dumcenco, Y.-S. Huang, “The vibrational properties study of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals by using polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 35(3), 419–425 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ivantchev, S.

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Izquierdo-Roca, V.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jodl, H. J.

B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

Kammerlander, D.

S. Botti, D. Kammerlander, M. A. L. Marques, “Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241915 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kerrec, O.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khare, A.

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

Kim, U. J.

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirov, A.

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klemradt, U.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kresse, G.

J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroumova, E.

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krustok, J.

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurdi, J.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ley, L.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, L. Ley, “The one phonon raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, Y.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ligeon, M.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luth, H.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Madariaga, G.

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marques, M. A. L.

S. Botti, D. Kammerlander, M. A. L. Marques, “Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241915 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitzi, D. B.

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morante, J. R.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Münder, H.

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagoya, A.

J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H.

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

Noufi, R.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paier, J.

J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pankow, J.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parissi, L.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Rodríguez, A.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Mato, J. M.

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Rodríguez, A.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Persson, C.

C. Persson, “Electronic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piscanec, S.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Porto, S. P. S.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, “Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Postnikov, A.

N. B. M. Amiri, A. Postnikov, “Electronic structure and lattice dynamics in kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 from first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205204 (2010).

Raadik, T.

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramdani, O.

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raudoja, J.

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Repins, I.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, L. Ley, “The one phonon raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudigier, E.

E. Rudigier, T. Enzenhofer, R. Scheer, “Determination of the quality of CuInS2-based solar cells combining Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 480-481, 327–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarswat, P. K.

P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature-dependent study of the Raman A mode of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2170–2174 (2011).

Saucedo, E.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Scheer, R.

E. Rudigier, T. Enzenhofer, R. Scheer, “Determination of the quality of CuInS2-based solar cells combining Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 480-481, 327–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schorr, S.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Siebentritt, S. Schorr, “Kesterites - a challenging material for solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(5), 512–519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sevik, C.

T. Gürel, C. Sevik, T. Cagin, “Characterization of vibrational and mechanical properties of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 in kesterite and stannite structures,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Siebentritt, S.

S. Siebentritt, S. Schorr, “Kesterites - a challenging material for solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(5), 512–519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stancik, A. L.

A. L. Stancik, E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47(1), 66–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teeter, G.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, “Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Timmo, K.

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, A.

P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature-dependent study of the Raman A mode of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2170–2174 (2011).

To, B.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T. K.

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Valakh, M. Y.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vora, N.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wan, L.

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, L. Ley, “The one phonon raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wondratschek, H.

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Q.

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

Xu, J.

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yukhymchuk, V. O.

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zapien, J. A.

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. A (1)

M. I. Aroyo, A. Kirov, C. Capillas, J. M. Perez-Mato, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server. II. Representations of crystallographic point groups and space groups,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(2), 115–128 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. (1)

K. W. Adu, Q. Xiong, H. R. Gutierrez, G. Chen, P. C. Eklund, “Raman scattering as a probe of phonon confinement and surface optical modes in semiconducting nanowires,” Appl. Phys. A. Mmate. 85, 287–297 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Botti, D. Kammerlander, M. A. L. Marques, “Band structures of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 from many-body methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241915 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Z. Chen, L. Han, L. Wan, C. Zhang, H. Niu, J. Xu, “Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(20), 8490–8492 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

X. Fontané, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, S. Schorr, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. Y. Valakh, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, J. R. Morante, “Vibrational properties of stannite and kesterite type compounds: Raman scattering analysis of Cu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 539, 190–194 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Khare, B. Himmetoglu, M. Johnson, D. J. Norris, M. Cococcioni, E. S. Aydil, “Calculation of the lattice dynamics and Raman spectra of copper zinc tin chalcogenides and comparison to experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 083707 (2012).

C. Persson, “Electronic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053710 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

B. Eckert, H. O. Albert, H. J. Jodl, P. Foggi, “Raman studies of sulfur crystal (α-S8) at high pressures and low temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(20), 8212–8219 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

N. Vora, J. Blackburn, I. Repins, C. Beall, B. To, J. Pankow, G. Teeter, M. Young, R. Noufi, “Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(5), 051201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Dumcenco, Y.-S. Huang, “The vibrational properties study of kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 single crystals by using polarization dependent Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. 35(3), 419–425 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, B. Tell, “Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

J. Paier, R. Asahi, A. Nagoya, G. Kresse, “Cu2ZnSnS4 as a potential photovoltaic material: A hybrid Hartree-Fock density functional theory study,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115126 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Adu, H. R. Gutiérrez, U. J. Kim, P. C. Eklund, “Inhomogeneous laser heating and phonon confinement in silicon nanowires: A micro-Raman scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 155333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. B. M. Amiri, A. Postnikov, “Electronic structure and lattice dynamics in kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 from first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 205204 (2010).

T. Gürel, C. Sevik, T. Cagin, “Characterization of vibrational and mechanical properties of quaternary compounds Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 in kesterite and stannite structures,” Phys. Rev. B 84(20), 205201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Piscanec, M. Cantoro, A. C. Ferrari, J. A. Zapien, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, S. Hofmann, J. Robertson, “Raman spectroscopy of silicon nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 68(24), 241312 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

P. K. Sarswat, M. L. Free, A. Tiwari, “Temperature-dependent study of the Raman A mode of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2170–2174 (2011).

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

S. Siebentritt, S. Schorr, “Kesterites - a challenging material for solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(5), 512–519 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. B. Mitzi, O. Gunawan, T. K. Todorov, K. Wang, S. Guha, “The path towards a high-performance solution-processed kesterite solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(6), 1421–1436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (2)

H. Richter, Z. P. Wang, L. Ley, “The one phonon raman spectrum in microcrystalline silicon,” Solid State Commun. 39(5), 625–629 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Campbell, P. M. Fauchet, “The effect of microcrystal size and shape on the one phonon Raman spectra of crystalline semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 58(10), 739–741 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

H. Münder, C. Andrzejak, M. G. Berger, U. Klemradt, H. Luth, R. Herino, M. Ligeon, “A detailed sRaman study of porous silicon,” Thin Solid Films 221(1-2), 27–33 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. Rudigier, T. Enzenhofer, R. Scheer, “Determination of the quality of CuInS2-based solar cells combining Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 480-481, 327–331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, T. Raadik, “Photoluminescence and Raman study of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1-x)(4) monograins for photovoltaic applications,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7403–7406 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Pérez Rodríguez, L. Calvo-Barrio, J. Alvarez-Garcia, J. R. Morante, V. Bermudez, O. Ramdani, J. Kurdi, P. P. Grand, L. Parissi, O. Kerrec, “Raman scattering microcrystalline assessment and device quality control of electrodepo sited CuIn(S,Se)(2) based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7021–7025 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Grossberg, J. Krustok, K. Timmo, M. Altosaar, “Radiative recombination in Cu2ZnSnSe4 monograins studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2489–2492 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

A. L. Stancik, E. B. Brauns, “A simple asymmetric lineshape for fitting infrared absorption spectra,” Vib. Spectrosc. 47(1), 66–69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

M. I. Aroyo, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Capillas, E. Kroumova, S. Ivantchev, G. Madariaga, A. Kirov, H. Wondratschek, “Bilbao crystallographic server: I. Databases and crystallographic computing programs,” Z. Kristallogr. 221(1_2006), 15–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. K. Todorov, J. Tang, S. Bag, O. Gunawan, T. Gokmen, Y. Zhu, and D. B. Mitzi, “Beyond 11% Efficiency: Characteristics of State‐of‐the‐Art Cu2ZnSn (S, Se) 4 Solar Cells,” Adv. Energy Mater. (2012).

U. Rau, D. Abou-Ras, and T. Kirchartz, Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, 2011).

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