Abstract

A single-step, low-cost fabrication method to generate resonant nano-grating patterns on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA; plexiglas) substrates using thermal nano-imprint lithography is reported. A guided-mode resonant structure is obtained by subsequent deposition of thin films of transparent conductive oxide and amorphous silicon on the imprinted area. Referenced to equivalent planar structures, around 25% and 45% integrated optical absorbance enhancement is observed over the 450-nm to 900-nm wavelength range in one- and two-dimensional patterned samples, respectively. The fabricated elements provided have 300-nm periods. Thermally imprinted thermoplastic substrates hold potential for low-cost fabrication of nano-patterned thin-film solar cells for efficient light management.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Recent progress in direct patterning technologies based on nano-imprint lithography,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 59(1), 10001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Liu, C.-T. Liao, “Fast fabrication of nano-structured anti-reflection layers for enhancement of solar cells performance using plasma sputtering and infrared assisted roller embossing techniques,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5143–5150 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Khaleque, R. Magnusson, “Experiments with resonant thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8470, 847008, 847008-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, R. Magnusson, “Total absorption of TM polarized light in a 100 nm spectral band in a nanopatterned thin a-Si film,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2103–2105 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective submicrometer gratings on thin-film silicon solar cells for light-absorption enhancement,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 276–278 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K.-S. Han, S.-H. Hong, H. Lee, “Fabrication of complex nanoscale structures on various substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

2002 (1)

S. Y. Chou, C. Keimel, J. Gu, “Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon,” Nature 417(6891), 835–837 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Andreu, J.

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Asensi, J. M.

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bertomeu, J.

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Bessonov, A.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K.-J.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Recent progress in direct patterning technologies based on nano-imprint lithography,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 59(1), 10001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.-Y.

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C.-P.

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, C. Keimel, J. Gu, “Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon,” Nature 417(6891), 835–837 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cubero, O.

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Escarré, J.

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, A.

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fonrodona, M.

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Fu, C.-C.

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

S. Y. Chou, C. Keimel, J. Gu, “Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon,” Nature 417(6891), 835–837 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, K.-S.

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Han, S.-H. Hong, H. Lee, “Fabrication of complex nanoscale structures on various substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.-J.

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, A. J.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S.-H.

K.-S. Han, S.-H. Hong, H. Lee, “Fabrication of complex nanoscale structures on various substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, D.

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-F.

Huang, M.-C.

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, E.-S.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.-J.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keimel, C.

S. Y. Chou, C. Keimel, J. Gu, “Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon,” Nature 417(6891), 835–837 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khaleque, T.

T. Khaleque, R. Magnusson, “Experiments with resonant thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8470, 847008, 847008-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lare, M. C.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Recent progress in direct patterning technologies based on nano-imprint lithography,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 59(1), 10001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Han, S.-H. Hong, H. Lee, “Fabrication of complex nanoscale structures on various substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-W.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Lee, Y.-C.

Liao, C.-T.

Liu, S.-J.

Magnusson, R.

T. Khaleque, R. Magnusson, “Experiments with resonant thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8470, 847008, 847008-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Wu, R. Magnusson, “Total absorption of TM polarized light in a 100 nm spectral band in a nanopatterned thin a-Si film,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2103–2105 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, T. A.

D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nah, J.-W.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, E.-A.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Perregaux, S.

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ross, F. M.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadana, D. K.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, B.

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D.

D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.-H.

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M.

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soler, D.

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Song, Y. M.

Sun, K. W.

J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tibuleac, S.

D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ting, C.-J.

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, H.-Y.

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villar, F.

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

Waxler, R. M.

Wu, M.-L.

Wu, W.

Yang, P.

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, W.-Y.

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

J. Kim, A. J. Hong, J.-W. Nah, B. Shin, F. M. Ross, D. K. Sadana, “Three-dimensional a-Si:H solar cells on glass nanocone arrays patterned by self-assembled Sn nanospheres,” ACS Nano 6(1), 265–271 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Han, S.-H. Hong, H. Lee, “Fabrication of complex nanoscale structures on various substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Recent progress in direct patterning technologies based on nano-imprint lithography,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 59(1), 10001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

C.-J. Ting, M.-C. Huang, H.-Y. Tsai, C.-P. Chou, C.-C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charrière, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Y. Chou, C. Keimel, J. Gu, “Ultrafast and direct imprint of nanostructures in silicon,” Nature 417(6891), 835–837 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Shin, S. Tibuleac, T. A. Maldonado, R. Magnusson, “Thin-film optical filters with diffractive elements and waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 37(9), 2634–2646 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. K. Gaylord, M. G. Moharam, “Analysis and applications of optical diffraction by gratings,” Proc. IEEE 73(5), 894–937 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Khaleque, R. Magnusson, “Experiments with resonant thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 8470, 847008, 847008-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

K. Söderström, J. Escarré, O. Cubero, F.-J. Haug, S. Perregaux, C. Ballif, “UV-nano-imprint lithography technique for the replication of back reflectors for n-i-p thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(2), 202–210 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

M. Fonrodona, J. Escarré, F. Villar, D. Soler, J. M. Asensi, J. Bertomeu, J. Andreu, “PEN as substrate for new solar cell technology,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 89, 37–47 (2005).

A. Bessonov, Y. Cho, S.-J. Jung, E.-A. Park, E.-S. Hwang, J.-W. Lee, M. Shin, S. Lee, “Nanoimprint patterning for tunable light trapping in large-area silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(10), 2886–2892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen, K. W. Sun, “Enhancement of the light conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells by using nanoimprint anti-reflection layer,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 629–633 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-S. Han, J.-H. Shin, W.-Y. Yoon, H. Lee, “Enhanced performance of solar cells with anti-reflection layer fabricated by nano-imprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 288–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of nano-patterned master fabrication steps on quartz substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmittance of plexiglas.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic summarizing thermal nano-imprinting.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic view of grating geometry showing period (Λ), fill factor (F), and grating depth (dg).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images of the quartz master 1D grating.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AFM images of the quartz master 2D grating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AFM images of the imprinted plexiglas 1D grating.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AFM images of the imprinted plexiglas 2D grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SEM images of the (a) 1D quartz master grating, (b) 1D imprinted plexiglas grating, (c) ITO-coated 1D imprinted plexiglas grating, (d) 2D quartz master grating, (e) 2D imprinted plexiglas grating, and the (f) ITO-coated 2D imprinted plexiglas grating.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic view of fabricated nano-patterned a-Si film; arrows indicate the directions of the incident, reflected, and transmitted beams.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

AFM surface images of the ITO-coated patterned plexiglas substrate 1D grating.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

AFM surface images of the ITO-coated patterned plexiglas substrate 2D grating.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

AFM surface images of a-Si over an ITO layer. (a) 1D and (b) 2D grating.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Unpolarized absorbance spectra of planar reference and imprinted patterned samples at normal incidence of light.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

TE (electric field vector normal to the plane of incidence) and TM (electric field vector parallel to the plane of incidence) polarized components of absorbance of the 1D grating patterned sample at normal incidence of light.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Total (a) electric field distribution for TE1 mode excitation at the 762-nm wavelength (b) magnetic field distribution for TM0 mode excitation at the 792-nm wavelength, observed in the absorbance spectra of the 1D grating sample shown in Fig. 15. The fill factors of plexiglas, ITO, and a-Si grating layers are 0.5, 0.66, and 0.66, respectively.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

TE and TM polarized components of absorbance of the 2D grating patterned sample at normal incidence of light.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristic numbers of grating profiles obtained from AFM and SEM images

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