Abstract

The influence of realistic interface morphologies on light trapping in amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with periodic surface textures is studied. Realistic interface morphologies are obtained by a 3D surface coverage algorithm using the substrate morphology and layer thicknesses as input parameters. Finite difference time domain optical simulations are used to determine the absorption in the individual layers of the thin-film solar cell. The influence of realistic interface morphologies on light trapping is determined by using solar cells structures with the same front and back contact morphologies as a reference. Finally the optimal surface textures are derived.

© 2013 OSA

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  6. S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(1), 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Eckhardt, C. Sachse, A. F. Lasagni, “Light Management in Transparent Conducting Oxides by Direct Fabrication of Periodic Surface Arrays,” Phys. Procedia 41, 545–550 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, P. Obermeyer, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with metal back contacts,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6340–6347 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (9)

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Nano-crystalline silicon solar cell architecture with absorption at the classical 4n2 limit,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A664–A672 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, “Modeling light trapping in nanostructured solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(12), 10055–10064 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Jia, M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, B. Wacker, “Film formation mechanisms in the plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(8), 2998–3001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Agert, C.

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. T. L.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, “Modeling light trapping in nanostructured solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(12), 10055–10064 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benanti, T. L.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

Boccard, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bokalic, M.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucher, C.

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campa, A.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cantoni, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caratelli, D.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(1), 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

Chakanga, K.

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

C. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, B. Wacker, “Film formation mechanisms in the plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(8), 2998–3001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Charriére, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubero, O.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dewan, R.

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhardt, S.

S. Eckhardt, C. Sachse, A. F. Lasagni, “Light Management in Transparent Conducting Oxides by Direct Fabrication of Periodic Surface Arrays,” Phys. Procedia 41, 545–550 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Escarré, J.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Faÿ, S.

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, “Modeling light trapping in nanostructured solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(12), 10055–10064 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fonash, S. J.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haase, C.

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F. J.

Haug, F.-J.

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hongsingthong, A.

A. Hongsingthong, T. Krajangsang, B. Janthong, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, “Effect of high-haze zinc oxide films fabricated on soda-lime glass substrate for thin-film silicon solar cells,” 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 000791–000794 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hüpkes, J.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Isabella, O.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(1), 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Janthong, B.

A. Hongsingthong, T. Krajangsang, B. Janthong, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, “Effect of high-haze zinc oxide films fabricated on soda-lime glass substrate for thin-film silicon solar cells,” 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 000791–000794 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ji, L.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H.

H. Sai, H. Jia, M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jovanov, V.

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, P. Obermeyer, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with metal back contacts,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6340–6347 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kambe, M.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knights, J. C.

C. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, B. Wacker, “Film formation mechanisms in the plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(8), 2998–3001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, D.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, P. Obermeyer, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with metal back contacts,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6340–6347 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konagai, M.

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Hongsingthong, T. Krajangsang, B. Janthong, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, “Effect of high-haze zinc oxide films fabricated on soda-lime glass substrate for thin-film silicon solar cells,” 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 000791–000794 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Jia, M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krajangsang, T.

A. Hongsingthong, T. Krajangsang, B. Janthong, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, “Effect of high-haze zinc oxide films fabricated on soda-lime glass substrate for thin-film silicon solar cells,” 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 000791–000794 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krc, J.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, P. Obermeyer, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with metal back contacts,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6340–6347 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacombe, J.

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lasagni, A. F.

S. Eckhardt, C. Sachse, A. F. Lasagni, “Light Management in Transparent Conducting Oxides by Direct Fabrication of Periodic Surface Arrays,” Phys. Procedia 41, 545–550 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lipovsek, B.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madzharov, D.

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magnus, P.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Metselaar, J. W.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, W. J.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Naqavi, A.

Neidich, D.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nemeth, W.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niquille, X.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Obermeyer, P.

Owen, J. I.

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oyama, T.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

Paetzold, U. W.

Pahud, C.

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Palanchoke, U.

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, P. Obermeyer, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with metal back contacts,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6340–6347 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pieters, B. E.

Planchoke, U.

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, “Modeling light trapping in nanostructured solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(12), 10055–10064 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Python, M.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

Rech, B.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Z.

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, C.

S. Eckhardt, C. Sachse, A. F. Lasagni, “Light Management in Transparent Conducting Oxides by Direct Fabrication of Periodic Surface Arrays,” Phys. Procedia 41, 545–550 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Jia, M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

Schropp, R. E. I.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, M.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, O.

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A.

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shrestha, S.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sichanugrist, P.

A. Hongsingthong, T. Krajangsang, B. Janthong, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, “Effect of high-haze zinc oxide films fabricated on soda-lime glass substrate for thin-film silicon solar cells,” 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 000791–000794 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F. J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Söderström, T.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solntsev, S.

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(1), 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Spitznagel, J.

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, P. Obermeyer, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Plasmonic effects in amorphous silicon thin film solar cells with metal back contacts,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6340–6347 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Topic, M.

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

C. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, B. Wacker, “Film formation mechanisms in the plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(8), 2998–3001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varadan, V. V.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

von Maydell, K.

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wacker, B.

C. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, B. Wacker, “Film formation mechanisms in the plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(8), 2998–3001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Xu, X.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, M.

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(1), 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (2)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, “Modeling light trapping in nanostructured solar cells,” ACS Nano 5(12), 10055–10064 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

C.-M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. Ruan, F.-J. Haug, S. Fan, C. Ballif, Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Nam, L. Ji, T. L. Benanti, V. V. Varadan, S. Wagner, Q. Wang, W. Nemeth, D. Neidich, S. J. Fonash, “Incorporation of a light and carrier collection management nano-element array into superstrate a-Si:H solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(7), 073113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, J. I. Owen, D. Madzharov, V. Jovanov, J. Hüpkes, D. Knipp, “Analyzing nanotextured transparent conductive oxides for efficient light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Palanchoke, V. Jovanov, H. Kurz, R. Dewan, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact roughness on light trapping and plasmonic losses of randomly textured amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 083501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

S. Solntsev, O. Isabella, D. Caratelli, M. Zeman, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on 1-D periodic gratings with nonconformal layers: optical analysis,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 3(1), 46–52 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

H. Sai, H. Jia, M. Kondo, “Impact of front and rear texture of thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells on their light trapping properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 044505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Zeman, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, J. W. Metselaar, R. E. I. Schropp, “Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: effect of back contact and interface roughness,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(11), 6436–6443 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lacombe, O. Sergeev, K. Chakanga, K. von Maydell, C. Agert, “Three dimensional optical modeling of amorphous silicon thin film solar cells using the finite-difference time-domain method including real randomly surface topographies,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 023102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, B. Wacker, “Film formation mechanisms in the plasma deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(8), 2998–3001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Charriére, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 535–538 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Procedia (1)

S. Eckhardt, C. Sachse, A. F. Lasagni, “Light Management in Transparent Conducting Oxides by Direct Fabrication of Periodic Surface Arrays,” Phys. Procedia 41, 545–550 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

S. Faÿ, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, E. Vallat-Sauvain, A. Shah, “Low pressure chemical vapour deposition of ZnO layers for thin-film solar cells: temperature-induced morphological changes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(3), 385–397 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, U. Planchoke, P. Magnus, H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, “Influence of back contact morphology on light trapping and plasmonic effects in microcrystalline silicon single junction and micromorph tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 110, 49–57 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Jovanov, X. Xu, S. Shrestha, M. Schulte, J. Hüpkes, M. Zeman, D. Knipp, “Influence of interface morphologies on amorphous silicon thin film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 112, 182–189 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. Meier, J. Spitznagel, U. Kroll, C. Bucher, S. Faÿ, T. Moriarty, A. Shah, “Potential of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 518–524 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Krc, B. Lipovsek, M. Bokalic, A. Campa, T. Oyama, M. Kambe, T. Matsui, H. Sai, M. Kondo, M. Topic, “Potential of thin-film silicon solar cells by using high haze TCO superstrates,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3054–3058 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Hongsingthong, T. Krajangsang, B. Janthong, P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, “Effect of high-haze zinc oxide films fabricated on soda-lime glass substrate for thin-film silicon solar cells,” 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 000791–000794 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, Cambridge University Press, (1991), Chap. 2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silicon film formation in the direction of (a) the glass substrate normal and (b) the local surface normal. Cross section of amorphous silicon solar cells with periodic surface textures using (c) standard interface morphologies and (d) realistic interface morphologies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Back contact roughness as a function of a solar cell thickness for different pyramid heights and period of a (a) 100 nm and (b) 400 nm. Back contact roughness for standard solar cell structures is presented with dashed lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective thickness of the solar cell (a) p-layer with nominal thickness of 10 nm and (b) i-layer with nominal thickness of 300 nm as a function of pyramid dimensions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross section of amorphous silicon solar cell with standard interfaces for period of 100 nm and height of 120 nm. Corresponding power loss profiles for wavelength of (b) 420 nm and (c) 680 nm. (d) Cross section of amorphous silicon solar cell with standard interfaces for period of 400 nm and height of 120 nm. Corresponding power loss profiles for wavelengths of (e) 420 nm and (f) 680 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum efficiencies of standard solar cell structures for pyramid height of 120 nm and periods of 100 nm and 400 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Cross section of realistic amorphous silicon solar cell for period of 100 nm and height 120 nm. Corresponding power loss profiles for wavelength of (b) 420 nm and (c) 680 nm. (d) Cross section of amorphous silicon solar cell with standard interfaces for pyramid period of 400 nm and height 120 nm. Corresponding power loss profiles for wavelength of (e) 420 nm and (f) 680 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quantum efficiencies of realistic solar cell structures for pyramid height of 120 nm and periods of 100 nm and 400 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of amorphous solar cells with standard and realistic interface morphologies. (a) Front contact losses, (c) short circuit currents and (e) back contact losses for standard solar cell structures as a function of pyramid dimensions. (b) Front contact losses, (d) short circuit currents and (f) back contact losses for realistic solar cell structures.

Equations (2)

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R qpyr = H 3 2
d eff = V layer P 2

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