Abstract

Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells (TF-SCs) has been the long-lasting issue to achieve high efficiencies. Grating couplers have been studied for the conversion of incident light into guided modes propagating along TF-SCs to extend optical path for higher optical absorption. However the wavelength band for the efficient conversion remained relatively narrow and the overall improvement of TF-SC efficiencies has been limited. This paper demonstrates that the grating height design as well as the phase matching condition is important for the enhancement of optical absorption in TF-SCs with the calculation of short-circuit currents as a figure of merit for optimization. The influence of the light absorption coefficients and grating coupling strengths on the light absorption bandwidth is also discussed.

© 2013 OSA

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  7. J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
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2013

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

A. Moreau, R. Smaali, E. Centeno, C. Seassal, “Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

I. Suemune, “Conversion of light propagation direction for highly efficient solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Jing, Y. Jin, “Transmittance analysis of diffraction phase grating,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C11–C18 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Lu, A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 074901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Mutitu, S. Shi, C. Chen, T. Creazzo, A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. W. Prather, “Thin film solar cell design based on photonic crystal and diffractive grating structures,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15238–15248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, “A conceptual model of the diffuse transmittance of lamellar diffraction gratings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Optical properties of thin-film silicon solar cells with grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(7), 629–641 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(12), 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1982

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Taflove, “Application of the finite-difference time-domain method to sinusoidal steady-state electromagnetic-penetration problems,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-22(3), 191–202 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1966

K. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, C. W.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

Brammer, T.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bunte, E.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole, “A conceptual model of the diffuse transmittance of lamellar diffraction gratings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Centeno, E.

A. Moreau, R. Smaali, E. Centeno, C. Seassal, “Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creazzo, T.

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derkacs, D.

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dewan, R.

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 074901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisele, C.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(12), 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haase, C.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Optical properties of thin-film silicon solar cells with grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(7), 629–641 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubbard, G.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hyun, J. K.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

Jing, X.

Jo, J.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanno, H.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.-Y.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-H.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, D.

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S2Suppl 2), A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 074901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Konagai, M.

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, M.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-S.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lal, A.

Y. Lu, A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luque, A.

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madzharov, D.

Marti, A.

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, E.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreau, A.

A. Moreau, R. Smaali, E. Centeno, C. Seassal, “Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller, J.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mutitu, J. G.

Na, S.

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nebel, C. E.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(12), 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Rockstuhl, C.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seassal, C.

A. Moreau, R. Smaali, E. Centeno, C. Seassal, “Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Senoussaoui, N.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

Shields, P. A.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smaali, R.

A. Moreau, R. Smaali, E. Centeno, C. Seassal, “Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Optical properties of thin-film silicon solar cells with grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(7), 629–641 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(12), 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suemune, I.

I. Suemune, “Conversion of light propagation direction for highly efficient solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, “Application of the finite-difference time-domain method to sinusoidal steady-state electromagnetic-penetration problems,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-22(3), 191–202 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, M.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tobías, I.

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsunomura, Y.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. N.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K.

K. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimine, Y.

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahren, C.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Express

I. Suemune, “Conversion of light propagation direction for highly efficient solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. E. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Na, S.-S. Kim, S.-S. Kwon, J. Jo, J. Kim, T. Lee, D.-Y. Kim, “Surface relief gratings on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerence blends for efficient organic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 173509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.

K. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat.

A. Taflove, “Application of the finite-difference time-domain method to sinusoidal steady-state electromagnetic-penetration problems,” IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. EMC-22(3), 191–202 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, “A conceptual model of the diffuse transmittance of lamellar diffraction gratings on solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Eisele, C. E. Nebel, M. Stutzmann, “Periodic light coupler gratings in amorphous thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(12), 7722–7726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Tobías, A. Luque, A. Marti, “Light intensity enhancement by diffracting structures in solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(3), 034502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with integrated diffraction grating,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 074901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lim, D. Derkacs, E. T. Yu, “Light scattering into silicon-on-insulator waveguide modes by random and periodic gold nanodot arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Moreau, R. Smaali, E. Centeno, C. Seassal, “Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(8), 083102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Konagai, “Present status and future prospects of silicon thin-film solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 030001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci.

M. Kroll, S. Fahr, C. Helgert, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, T. Pertsch, “Employing dielectric diffractive structures in solar cells – a numerical study,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 205(12), 2777–2795 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37),” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(1), 84–92 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Muller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Optical properties of thin-film silicon solar cells with grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(7), 629–641 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Small

J. K. Hyun, C. Ahn, H. Kang, H. J. Kim, J. Park, K.-H. Kim, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Kim, S. Jeon, “Soft elastomeric nanopillar stamps for enhancing absorption in organic thin-film solar cells,” Small 9(3), 369–374 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

Y. Tsunomura, Y. Yoshimine, M. Taguchi, T. Baba, T. Kinoshita, H. Kanno, H. Sakata, E. Maruyama, M. Tanaka, “Twenty-two percent efficiency HIT solar cell,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 670–673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Mueller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells (Imperial College, 2003).

P. Wuerfel, Physics of Solar Cells (Wiley-VCH, 2009).

L. Ley, The Physics of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, Springer Tracts Appl. Phys. Eds. J.D. Joannopoulos, G. Lucovsky (Springer, 1984) 56, Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the calculated silicon TF-SC. (b) Wavelength dependence of short-circuit current under AM1.5 spectral irradiance. Solid line under 100%absorption efficiency, dashed line for TM incidence, and solid line with × for TE incidence. (c) Spectrally integrated short-circuit current vs. grating height Hgrat.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic structure for the FDTD calculation. (b) Optical absorption efficiency calculated for the grating height of Hgrat = 0, 30, and 124 nm. (c) Comparison of optical absorption efficiencies for Hgrat = 30 nm with the a-Si absorption coefficient (solid line) and with virtual /10 (dashed line) where the one for Hgrat = 0 nm with /10 is also shown as a reference. (d) Expanded spectrum around the 810-nm peak in (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Hy field calculated with the a-Si absorption coefficient for the grating height of Hgrat = 30 nm at the wavelength of 810 nm. The incident light beam was assumed to excite the width corresponding to the 10 grating periods. (b) Field calculated with virtually reduced absorption of /10.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Hy field calculated with the a-Si absorption coefficient for the grating height of Hgrat = 124 nm. (b) Field calculated with virtually reduced absorption of /10.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P= S E×HndS ,
D= m D λ/ N eff ,
2π| n Si n ITO | H grat λ =π,
I SC = i SC (λ) dλ [mA/c m 2 ],
i SC (λ)= q hc λQE(λ)S(λ) [(mA/c m 2 )/nm],
Φ(λ= λ 0 +Δλ)π(1Δλ/ λ 0 ),

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