Abstract

The Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) promise relies upon the use of high-efficiency triple-junction solar cells (with proven efficiencies of over 44%) and upon high-performance optics that allow for high concentration concurrent with relaxed manufacturing tolerances (all key elements for low-cost mass production). Additionally, uniform illumination is highly desirable for efficiency and reliability reasons. All of these features have to be achieved with inexpensive optics containing only a few (in general no more than 2) optical elements. In this paper we show that the degrees of freedom using free-forms allow the introduction of multiple functionalities required for CPV with just 2 optical elements, one of which is a Fresnel lens.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2005 (1)

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

Alvarez, J. L.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Araki, K.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Benitez, P.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Benítez, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, J. C. Gonźlez, P. Benítez, “A high-gain, compact, nonimaging concentrator: RXI,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7850–7856 (1995), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blen, J.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Bortz, J.

Buljan, M.

Chaves, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Cvetkovic, A.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Dross, O.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Falicof, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Falicoff, W.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

González, J. C.

Gonzlez, J. C.

Hernandez, M.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Hernández, M.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mendes-Lopes, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Miñano, J. C.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, J. C. Gonźlez, P. Benítez, “A high-gain, compact, nonimaging concentrator: RXI,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7850–7856 (1995), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Miñano, J. C. González, “New method of design of nonimaging concentrators,” Appl. Opt. 31(16), 3051–3060 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Mohedano, R.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Santamaría, A.

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Shatz, N.

Vilaplana, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Winston, R.

Yang, L.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Zamora, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Photon. Energy. (1)

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetković, J. Vilaplana, Y. Li, M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy. 2(1), 021806 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicoff, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. Chaves, O. Dross, M. Hernández, J. L. Alvarez, W. Falicof, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. C. Miñano, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. Blen, O. Dross, R. Mohedano, A. Santamaría, “Free-form integrator array optics,” Proc. SPIE 5942, 59420C, 59420C-12 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benítez, L. Yang, J. C. Miñano, J. Mendes-Lopes, K. Araki, “Photovoltaic performance of the dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 8468(84680D), 84680D (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benítez, Nonimaging optics, (Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, 2005)

P. Benitez and J. C. Miñano, “Concentrator Optics for the next generation photovoltaics”. in Next Generation Photovoltaics: High Efficiency through Full Spectrum Utilization, A. Marti, A. Luque, ed. (Taylor & Francis, CRC Press, London, 2004)

A. Luque, Solar Cells and Optics for Photovoltaic Concentration, (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1989)

http://www.lpi-llc.com/pdf/Ventana2012.pdf

http://corporate.evonik.com/en/media/press_releases/pages/news-details.aspx?newsid=26669

http://www.soitec.com/en/solar-energy/

L. W. James and W. James, “Use of imaging refractive secondaries in photovoltaic concentrators”, Contractor Report SAND89–7029, Sandia Labs, Albuquerque, New Mexico, (1989)

http://www.amonix.com

http://www.solfocus.com/

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, R. Mohedano, and J. C. Miñano, “Improving performances of Fresnel CPV system: Fresnel-RXI Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010) pp. 930–936. http://dx.doi.org/.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, M. Hernández, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, O. Dross, R. Alvarez, and A. Santamaría, “Advanced PV Concentrators”, in Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC),200934th IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2009) pp. 929–932, http://dx.doi.org/
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, J. Chaves, M. Hernandez, J. Vilaplana, “Characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrator”, Proceedings of 25th EU PVSEC, (2010), pp 176–181, (2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.4229/25thEUPVSEC2010-1BO.7.6

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, and R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices”, in Nonimaging Optics: Efficient Design for Illumination and Solar Concentration VII, ed. Roland Winston, Jeffrey M. Gordon, Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A (2010). http://dx.doi.org/.
[CrossRef]

S. Kurtz and M. J. O’Neill, “Estimating and controlling chromatic aberration losses for two-junction, two-terminal devices in refractive concentrator systems”, Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 1996 25th IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1996), pp. 361–364, (1996). http://dx.doi.org/.
[CrossRef]

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, Y. Li, J. C. Minano, J. Mendes-Lopes, and K. Araki, “The dome-shaped Fresnel-Köhler concentrator” in AIP Conf. Proc. 1477, 69 (2012), http://dx.doi.org/
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A 4-sector FK concentrator during measurements (a) and its glass molded SOE (b) showing the second part of the four sectors of the Köhler array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated irradiance distribution on the cell for the FK concentrator with parameters Cg = 625x, f/0.85, when the sun is on axis and the solar spectrum is restricted to: (a) the top-subcell range (360-690 nm), and (b) the middle-subcell range (690-900 nm). The vertical axis denotes the irradiance gain of the respective wavelength ranges relative to the 1-sun case.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rendered view of a dome-shaped FK concentrator (DFK). At bottom left, a detailed view of the SOE, where the 4 sectors can be distinguished, each one receiving light from one of the POE sectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DFK concentrator: Irradiance distribution on the cell, when illuminating the DFK at normal incidence with 1 sun irradiance.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated and measured transmission curves (a) with αsim = ± 1.25° and αmeasured = ± 1.24°. Illuminated SOE back surface (b) where the cell has been substituted by a transmissive diffuser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Scheme of the normal-incidence rays passing through one quarter of the POE (Fresnel lens) and focusing on the corresponding surface of the SOE (RXI). Light is focused by each Fresnel lens quarter on four different foci (b), corresponding to the four SOE parts.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation showing the relative optical efficiency versus incidence angle on a 2,300x free-form F-RXI Köhler concentrator (a). The resulting acceptance angle is α = ± 1.02°. The irradiance distribution on the cell when the sun’s center is at normal incidence (@DNI = 1 sun) is shown in (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cross section of the SOE of the concentrators being compared. All these concentrators have the same POE entry aperture area (625 cm2) and the same acceptance angle (α = ± 1°). The cross sections of their corresponding cells, which should be centered at the origin, are shown displaced downward to make them visible. f-numbers and geometrical concentrations are given in the left hand side.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Concentration acceptance angle product (CAP) for the concentrators under comparison.

Equations (1)

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CAP= C g sin(α)

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