Abstract

The effect of periodic and disordered photonic structures on the absorption efficiency of amorphous and crystalline Silicon thin-film solar cells is investigated numerically. We show that disordered patterns possessing a short-range correlation in the position of the holes yield comparable, or even superior, absorption enhancements than periodic (photonic crystal) patterns. This work provides clear evidence that non-deterministic photonic structures represent a viable alternative strategy for photon management in thin-film solar cells, thereby opening the route towards more efficient and potentially cheaper photovoltaic technologies.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

2012 (10)

M. Wellenzohn, R. Hainberger, “Light trapping by backside diffraction gratings in Silicon solar cells revisited,” Opt. Express 20, A20–A27 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bozzola, C. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film Silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express 20, A224–A244 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, L. Xia, H. Gao, R. Shi, C. Sun, H. Shi, C. Du, “Broadband absorption enhancement in a-Si:H thin-film solar cells sandwiched by pyramidal nanostructured arrays,” Opt. Express 20, A589–A596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. O. McPheeters, E. T. Yu, “Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with back side light trapping structures,” Opt. Express 20, A864–A878 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

K. Jeong, Y. Lee, H. Cao, J. Yang, “Lasing in localized mode at optimized photonic amorphous structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 091101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Callahan, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 215–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (8)

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline Silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18, A367–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. Inns, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, “Surface texturing of single-crystalline Silicon solar cells using low density SiO2 films as an anisotropic etch mask,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, S. Torquato, “Packing hard spheres in high dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

Andreani, L. C.

Atwater, H. A.

Bailat, J.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Ballif, C.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Naquavi, K. Söderström, F. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Becker, C.

Beckers, T.

Benagli, S.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Bittkau, K.

Boccard, M.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borrello, D.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Bozzola, A.

Bugnon, G.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Burresi, M.

Callahan, D. M.

D. M. Callahan, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 215–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

K. Jeong, Y. Lee, H. Cao, J. Yang, “Lasing in localized mode at optimized photonic amorphous structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 091101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

Castens, L.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Chang, J.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, “Improvement of photovoltaic efficiency using 3D photonic-crystal enhanced light trapping and absorption,” Physica E 44, 43–48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, K. M.

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Despeisse, M.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Dewan, R.

Diao, H. W.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Donev, A.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, S. Torquato, “Packing hard spheres in high dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.

Escarré, J.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18, A367–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef]

fave, A.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Favuzzi, P. A.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Florescu, L.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Florescu, M.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fogel, K.

J. Kim, D. Inns, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, “Surface texturing of single-crystalline Silicon solar cells using low density SiO2 films as an anisotropic etch mask,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

Garcia-Caurel, E.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gomard, G.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method (Artech House, 2005).

Hainberger, R.

Haug, F.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

A. Naquavi, K. Söderström, F. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.-J.

Herzig, H. P.

Hoetzel, J.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Huang, C.

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Inns, D.

J. Kim, D. Inns, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, “Surface texturing of single-crystalline Silicon solar cells using low density SiO2 films as an anisotropic etch mask,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K.

K. Jeong, Y. Lee, H. Cao, J. Yang, “Lasing in localized mode at optimized photonic amorphous structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 091101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. Inns, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, “Surface texturing of single-crystalline Silicon solar cells using low density SiO2 films as an anisotropic etch mask,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirchartz, T.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, D.

Kosten, E. D.

Kroll, U.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Lederer, F.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

Lemiti, M.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, H. L.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liscidini, C.

Lockau, D.

Madzharov, D.

Mallick, S. B.

Marmelo, M.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

McGehee, M. D.

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McPheeters, C. O.

Meier, J.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Meillaud, F.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Meng, X.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monteduro, G.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Naquavi, A.

Nicolay, S.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Noda, S.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic, 1998).

Peumans, P.

Pralle, M.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prasciolu, M.

Pratesi, F.

Puscasu, I.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18, A367–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

Riboli, F.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Rockstuhl, C.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Rudigier-Voight, E.

Sadana, D. K.

J. Kim, D. Inns, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, “Surface texturing of single-crystalline Silicon solar cells using low density SiO2 films as an anisotropic etch mask,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

Seassal, C.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, H.

Shi, R.

Shigeta, H.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shmidt, F.

Skoge, M.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, S. Torquato, “Packing hard spheres in high dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

A. Naquavi, K. Söderström, F. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, T.

Sontheimer, T.

Steinhauser, J.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Stillinger, F. H.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, S. Torquato, “Packing hard spheres in high dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method (Artech House, 2005).

Tanaka, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ting, D. Z.

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tormen, M.

Torquato, S.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, S. Torquato, “Packing hard spheres in high dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, C.

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

Vynck, K.

Wang, W. J.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E. L.

Wellenzohn, M.

Wiersma, D. S.

Wu, M.

Xia, L.

Yang, J.

K. Jeong, Y. Lee, H. Cao, J. Yang, “Lasing in localized mode at optimized photonic amorphous structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 091101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18, A367–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C. L.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zuo, Y. H.

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous Silicon thin film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. 108, 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Jeong, Y. Lee, H. Cao, J. Yang, “Lasing in localized mode at optimized photonic amorphous structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 091101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16, 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687702 (2010), http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Meep .
[CrossRef]

Energy Procedia (1)

C. Battaglia, J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Boccard, C. Ballif, “Experimental evaluation of the light trapping potential of optical nanostructures for thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 15, 206–211 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol. Mat. (1)

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, M. Despeisse, S. Nicolay, C. Battaglia, G. Bugnon, L. Ding, F. Meillaud, F. Haug, C. Ballif, “Geometric light trapping for high efficiency thin film silicon solar cells,” J. Sol. Mat. 98, 185–190 (2012).

Nano Lett. (1)

D. M. Callahan, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 215–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Opt. Express (14)

S. Fahr, C. Ulbrich, T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, “Approaching the Lambertian limit in randomly textured thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, A865–A875 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express 18, A367–A380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, C. Huang, J. Chang, M. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film Silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16, 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline Silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Naquavi, K. Söderström, F. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Madzharov, R. Dewan, D. Knipp, “Influence of front and back grating on light trapping in microcrystalline thin-film Silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19, A95–A107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Kosten, E. L. Warren, H. A. Atwater, “Ray optical light trapping in Silicon microwires: exceeding the 2n2 intensity limit,” Opt. Express 19, 3316–3331 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wellenzohn, R. Hainberger, “Light trapping by backside diffraction gratings in Silicon solar cells revisited,” Opt. Express 20, A20–A27 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bozzola, C. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film Silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express 20, A224–A244 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, L. Xia, H. Gao, R. Shi, C. Sun, H. Shi, C. Du, “Broadband absorption enhancement in a-Si:H thin-film solar cells sandwiched by pyramidal nanostructured arrays,” Opt. Express 20, A589–A596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. O. McPheeters, E. T. Yu, “Computational analysis of thin film InGaAs/GaAs quantum well solar cells with back side light trapping structures,” Opt. Express 20, A864–A878 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lockau, T. Sontheimer, C. Becker, E. Rudigier-Voight, F. Shmidt, B. Rech, “Nanophotonic light trapping in 3-dimensional thin-film silicon architectures,” Opt. Express 21, A42–A52 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, F. Pratesi, K. Vynck, M. Prasciolu, M. Tormen, D. S. Wiersma, “Two-dimensional disorder for broadband, omnidirectional and polarization-insensitive absorption,” Opt. Express 21, A268–A275 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, S. Torquato, “Packing hard spheres in high dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (1)

J. Chen, “Improvement of photovoltaic efficiency using 3D photonic-crystal enhanced light trapping and absorption,” Physica E 44, 43–48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Nat. Ac. Sci. 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. (1)

M. Florescu, H. Lee, I. Puscasu, M. Pralle, L. Florescu, D. Z. Ting, J. P. Dowling, “Improving solar cell efficiency using photonic band-gap materials,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C. 91, 1599–1610 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy (1)

L. Zhao, Y. H. Zuo, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Li, H. W. Diao, W. J. Wang, “A highly efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 84, 110–115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

J. Kim, D. Inns, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, “Surface texturing of single-crystalline Silicon solar cells using low density SiO2 films as an anisotropic etch mask,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2091–2093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic, 1998).

AM1.5 solar spectrum irradiance data: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am1.5 .

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the finite-difference time-domain method (Artech House, 2005).

S. Benagli, D. Borrello, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Meier, U. Kroll, J. Hoetzel, J. Bailat, J. Steinhauser, M. Marmelo, G. Monteduro, L. Castens, “High efficiency amorphous Silicon devices on LPCVD-ZnO TCO prepared in industrial KAITM-M R&D reactor,” 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 21–25 September 2009, Hamburg, Germany.

M. D. Platzer, “U.S. Solar photovoltaic manufacturing: industry trends, global competition, federal support,” Congressional Research Service, 7-5700 (2012), www.crs.gov

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Overall structure of the solar cell. Photonic light trapping structure, here depicted for the random case, is present only into the active Si layer. In the figure r is the radius of the holes, a, t, b and h are the thicknesses of the ARC, the active layer (a-Si or c-Si), the Ag backreflector and the depth of the holes. Realization (8 × 8 μm2) of b) periodic (hexagonal lattice) c) correlated disordered and d) random hole patterns. The calculation for v the periodic case has been performed on a computational cell of D × 3 DD, where D is the distance between holes (D = 644 nm), due to the periodicity of the system. Thus, the image in b) does not represent the actual computational cell but is a schematic representation of the periodic structure for comparison with c) and d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) and c) Calculated absorption spectra and b) and d) respective absorption enhancements for a-Si solar cells with periodic, correlated-disordered and random photonic structures for configuration A1 and A2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) and c) Calculated absorption spectra and b) and d) respective absorption enhancements for c-Si solar cells with periodic, correlated-disordered and random photonic structures for configuration C1 and C2.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Drude-Lorentz parameters considered in the calculations.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Figures of merit (a-Si)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Figures of merit (c-Si)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε ( w ) = ε 0 + i = 1 N σ i w i 2 w i 2 w 2 i w Γ i
E ( λ ) = A i ( λ ) A s ( λ )
I E ( λ ) = A i ( λ ) P A M 1.5 ( λ ) d λ A s ( λ ) P A M 1.5 ( λ ) d λ .
G = J i sc J s sc J max sc J s sc ( A i ( λ ) A s ( λ ) ) P A M 1.5 ( λ ) d λ ( 1 A s ( λ ) ) P A M 1.5 ( λ ) d λ

Metrics