Abstract

Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheng, H. J. Fan, “Branched nanowires: Synthesis and energy applications,” Nano Today 7(4), 327–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Deinega, S. John, “Effective optical response of silicon to sunlight in the finite-difference time-domain method,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 112–114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

K.-T. Park, Z. Guo, H.-D. Um, J.-Y. Jung, J. M. Yang, S. K. Lim, Y. S. Kim, J.-H. Lee, “Optical properties of Si microwires combined with nanoneedles for flexible thin film photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 19(S1Suppl 1), A41–A50 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Han, Y. W. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, “Application of Silicon Micropyramid Structures for Antireflection of Terahertz Waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 338–343 (2010).

2009 (2)

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Bierman, S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. M. Braun, L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguinaldo, R.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bando, Y.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banu, K.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, G. D.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bierman, M. J.

M. J. Bierman, S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Braun, M. M.

M. M. Braun, L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. W.

P. Han, Y. W. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, “Application of Silicon Micropyramid Structures for Antireflection of Terahertz Waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 338–343 (2010).

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, H. J. Fan, “Branched nanowires: Synthesis and energy applications,” Nano Today 7(4), 327–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Connor, S. T.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deinega, A.

Deppert, K.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dick, K. A.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, H. J.

C. Cheng, H. J. Fan, “Branched nanowires: Synthesis and energy applications,” Nano Today 7(4), 327–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferekides, C. S.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, P.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Hahn, C.

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, P.

P. Han, Y. W. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, “Application of Silicon Micropyramid Structures for Antireflection of Terahertz Waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 338–343 (2010).

Hsu, C.-M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y. J.

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. E.

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

M. J. Bierman, S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jing, Y.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.-Y.

Kargar, A.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kayes, B. M.

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelzenberg, M. D.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Kendrick, C. E.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

Larsson, M. W.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S. Q.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. P.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. K.

Liu, Z. W.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, K.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallouk, T. E.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mårtensson, T.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, T. S.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mensah, S. L.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morel, D.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, A.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.-T.

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Pilon, L.

M. M. Braun, L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Podraza, N. J.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Qian, F.

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Razykov, T. M.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J. M.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, V.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seideman, T.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifert, W.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Stefanakos, E.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ullal, H. S.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Um, H.-D.

Upadhyaya, H. M.

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A. T.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallenberg, L. R.

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Werner, P.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wronski, C. R.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. M.

Yang, P.

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, H. P.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuwen, Y. A.

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. F.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

P. Han, Y. W. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, “Application of Silicon Micropyramid Structures for Antireflection of Terahertz Waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 338–343 (2010).

Zhong, Z. H.

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y. C.

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

S. Q. Li, P. Guo, L. Zhang, W. Zhou, T. W. Odom, T. Seideman, J. B. Ketterson, R. P. H. Chang, “Infrared Plasmonics with Indium-Tin-Oxide Nanorod Arrays,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9161–9170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. P. Yoon, Y. A. Yuwen, C. E. Kendrick, G. D. Barber, N. J. Podraza, J. M. Redwing, T. E. Mallouk, C. R. Wronski, T. S. Mayer, “Enhanced conversion efficiencies for pillar array solar cells fabricated from crystalline silicon with short minority carrier diffusion lengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 213503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

M. J. Bierman, S. Jin, “Potential applications of hierarchical branching nanowires in solar energy conversion,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(10), 1050–1059 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Han, Y. W. Chen, X.-C. Zhang, “Application of Silicon Micropyramid Structures for Antireflection of Terahertz Waves,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 338–343 (2010).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. M. Kayes, H. A. Atwater, N. S. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial p-n junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light Trapping in Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wang, F. Qian, C. Yang, Z. H. Zhong, C. M. Lieber, “Rational Growth of Branched and Hyperbranched Nanowire Structures,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 871–874 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Yan, X. P. Li, K. Zhou, A. Pan, P. Werner, S. L. Mensah, A. T. Vogel, V. Schmidt, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb nanotrees with an ultra-low reflectivity in a broad spectral range,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1799–1805 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Hwang, C. H. Wu, C. Hahn, H. E. Jeong, P. D. Yang, “Si/InGaN core/shell hierarchical nanowire arrays and their photoelectrochemical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1678–1682 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of Optical Absorption in Silicon Nanowire Arrays for Photovoltaic Applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C.-M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical Absorption Enhancement in Amorphous Silicon Nanowire and Nanocone Arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

C. Cheng, H. J. Fan, “Branched nanowires: Synthesis and energy applications,” Nano Today 7(4), 327–343 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

K. Sun, Y. Jing, C. Li, X. F. Zhang, R. Aguinaldo, A. Kargar, K. Madsen, K. Banu, Y. C. Zhou, Y. Bando, Z. W. Liu, D. Wang, “3D branched nanowire heterojunction photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar water splitting and H2 generation,” Nanoscale 4(5), 1515–1521 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

K. A. Dick, K. Deppert, M. W. Larsson, T. Mårtensson, W. Seifert, L. R. Wallenberg, L. Samuelson, “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by controlled seeding of multiple branching events,” Nat. Mater. 3(6), 380–384 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sol. Energy (1)

T. M. Razykov, C. S. Ferekides, D. Morel, E. Stefanakos, H. S. Ullal, H. M. Upadhyaya, “Solar photovoltaic electricity: Current status and future prospects,” Sol. Energy 85(8), 1580–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

M. A. Green, “Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300 K including temperature coefficients,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(11), 1305–1310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. M. Braun, L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous thin films,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, 2nd ed. (Princeton University Press, 2008).

S. G. Johnson, “Materials in Meep,” http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Material_dispersion_in_Meep .

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Third Edition, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

E. Barraud, “New world record efficiency for thin film silicon solar cells,” http://actu.epfl.ch/news/new- world-record-efficiency-for-thin-film-silicon-/

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light and carrier interactions in Si junctions (a) planar junction, (b) radial junction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of NW array with r = 25 nm, L = 2.33 μm, and a = 100 nm (orange) compared with TMM results from [20].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dimensions of a single branched nanowire tree. (b) Array of BNW trees.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reference solar spectrum for Si BNW simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BNW forest with Rtrunk = 0.35 μm, lattice spacing a = 2 μm, height h = 10 μm, branch radius Rbranch = 0.04. Height ranges from 5 – 25μm. (a) Branch spacing s = 0.7 μm. (b) Branch spacing s = 2.5 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

BNW forest with Rtrunk = 0.35 μm, a = 2 μm. (a) Branch spacing s = 0.7 μm, trunk height h = 10 μm, branch radius Rbranch = 0.04 – 0.28 μm. (b) s = 2.5 μm, h = 10 μm, Rbranch = 0.04 – 0.32 μm. (c) s = 0.7 μm, h = 20 μm, Rbranch = 0.04 μm; compared to NW with a = 2 μm, h = 20 μm. (d) s = 2.5 μm, h = 10 μm, Rbranch = 0.04 – 0.28 μm. s = 2.5 μm, h = 20 μm, Rbranch = 0.04 – 0.20 μm; compared to NW with a = 2 μm, h = 20 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

[Left side] BNW forest configurations. (a) Plain BNW tree; (b) Canopy; (c) Scrub; (d) Conifer. [Right side] Results for BNW tree, canopy, conifer, and scrub forest arrays for Rtrunk = 0.35 μm, a = 2 μm, branch spacing s = 0.7 μm, trunk height h = 20 μm, branch radius Rbranch = 0.25 μm, branch length L = 5

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Reflectance and transmittance for branched nanowires with Rtrunk = 0.35 μm, a = 1 μm. s = 0.7 μm, L = 0.5 μm, trunk height h = 20 μm, branch radius Rbranch = 0.25 μm.

Equations (3)

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η eff =( 1ϕ ) η c +ϕ η d
R= R Ρ = R = ( η d η i η d + η i ) 2
T=T Ρ = T = 4 η d η i ( η d + η i ) 2

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