Abstract

Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Fahim, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Liu, X. Yu, “Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564–573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with laminated top electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1276–1279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gaynor, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “Fully solution-processed inverted polymer solar cells with laminated nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 30–34 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrode,” Adv. Mater. 20, 6 (2008).

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. G. Kang, L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted semitransparent metal electrodes and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. L. Chopra, S. Major, D. K. Pandya, “Transparent conductors—A status review,” Thin Solid Films 102(1), 1–46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1965

A. M. Cowley, S. M. Sze, “Surface states and barrier height of metal-semiconductor systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 3212–3220 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1961

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, T. M.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergeson, J. D.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Blackburn, J. L.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Breitenstein, O.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bult, J.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, P.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chopra, K. L.

K. L. Chopra, S. Major, D. K. Pandya, “Transparent conductors—A status review,” Thin Solid Films 102(1), 1–46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. N.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Connor, S. T.

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with laminated top electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1276–1279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coull, R.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowley, A. M.

A. M. Cowley, S. M. Sze, “Surface states and barrier height of metal-semiconductor systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 3212–3220 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with laminated top electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1276–1279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, I. K.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fahim, N.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fahim, N. F.

Gaynor, W.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Gaynor, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “Fully solution-processed inverted polymer solar cells with laminated nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 30–34 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Fahim, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrode,” Adv. Mater. 20, 6 (2008).

M. G. Kang, L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted semitransparent metal electrodes and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hardin, B. E.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, D. S.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvin, G.

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, F. N.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564–573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Fahim, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, M. G.

M. G. Kang, L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted semitransparent metal electrodes and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.-G.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrode,” Adv. Mater. 20, 6 (2008).

Kim, H. S.

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrode,” Adv. Mater. 20, 6 (2008).

Kim, M.-S.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrode,” Adv. Mater. 20, 6 (2008).

Kumar, A.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564–573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, O.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, B. A.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-Y.

W. Gaynor, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “Fully solution-processed inverted polymer solar cells with laminated nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 30–34 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with laminated top electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1276–1279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennon, A.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-H.

C.-H. Liu, X. Yu, “Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, P. E.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madaria, A. R.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564–573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mai, L.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Major, S.

K. L. Chopra, S. Major, D. K. Pandya, “Transparent conductors—A status review,” Thin Solid Films 102(1), 1–46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Z.

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pandya, D. K.

K. L. Chopra, S. Major, D. K. Pandya, “Transparent conductors—A status review,” Thin Solid Films 102(1), 1–46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Gaynor, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “Fully solution-processed inverted polymer solar cells with laminated nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 30–34 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with laminated top electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1276–1279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillai, S.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiao, Q.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Reese, M. O.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rickard, D.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rim, S.-B.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saha, J. K.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Fahim, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Simultaneous broadband light trapping and fill factor enhancement in crystalline silicon solar cells induced by Ag nanoparticles and nanoshells,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A694–A705 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, N.

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sugianto, A.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

A. M. Cowley, S. M. Sze, “Surface states and barrier height of metal-semiconductor systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 3212–3220 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tjahjono, B. S.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van de Lagemaat, J.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Varlamov, S.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, M. J.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenham, S. R.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

C.-H. Liu, X. Yu, “Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564–573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gaynor, J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “Fully solution-processed inverted polymer solar cells with laminated nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(1), 30–34 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater.

T. M. Barnes, M. O. Reese, J. D. Bergeson, B. A. Larsen, J. L. Blackburn, M. C. Beard, J. Bult, J. van de Lagemaat, “Comparing the fundamental physics and device performance of transparent, conductive nanostructured networks with conventional transparent conducting oxides,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(3), 353–360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrode,” Adv. Mater. 20, 6 (2008).

D. S. Hecht, L. Hu, G. Irvin, “Emerging transparent electrodes based on thin films of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metallic nanostructures,” Adv. Mater. 23(13), 1482–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Kang, L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted semitransparent metal electrodes and their application in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Ouyang, S. Pillai, F. Beck, O. Kunz, S. Varlamov, K. R. Catchpole, P. Campbell, M. A. Green, “Effective light trapping in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells by means of rear localized surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 151101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Cowley, S. M. Sze, “Surface states and barrier height of metal-semiconductor systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(10), 3212–3220 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Solution-processed metal nanowire mesh transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 8(2), 689–692 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Lee, S. T. Connor, Y. Cui, P. Peumans, “Semitransparent organic photovoltaic cells with laminated top electrode,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1276–1279 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Res.

A. R. Madaria, A. Kumar, F. N. Ishikawa, C. Zhou, “Uniform, highly conductive, and patterned transparent films of a percolating silver nanowire network on rigid and flexible substrates using a dry transfer technique,” Nano Res. 3(8), 564–573 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanophotonics

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale Res. Lett.

C.-H. Liu, X. Yu, “Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 75 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Org. Electron.

B. E. Hardin, W. Gaynor, I. K. Ding, S.-B. Rim, P. Peumans, M. D. McGehee, “Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 875–879 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

A. Sugianto, O. Breitenstein, B. S. Tjahjono, A. Lennon, L. Mai, S. R. Wenham, “Impact of localized regions with very high series resistances on cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 452–462 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Small

V. Scardaci, R. Coull, P. E. Lyons, D. Rickard, J. N. Coleman, “Spray deposition of highly transparent, low-resistance networks of silver nanowires over large areas,” Small 7(18), 2621–2628 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, M. A. Green, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Up-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(9), 829–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

K. L. Chopra, S. Major, D. K. Pandya, “Transparent conductors—A status review,” Thin Solid Films 102(1), 1–46 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, Introduction To Percolation Theory, 2nd ed. (Taylor & Francis, 1994).

P. Heitjans and J. Kärger, Diffusion in Condensed Matter: Methods, Materials, Models (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2005), Vol. 22.

L. E. Scriven, “Physics and applications of dip coating and spin coating,” MRS Online Proc. Library 121 (1988).

Solarbuzz, “Solar market research and analysis” (2012), retrieved http://www.solarbuzz.com/going-solar/understanding/technologies .

D. A. Clugston and P. A. Basore, “PC1D version 5: 32-bit solar cell modeling on personal computers,” in Record of 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1997), pp. 207–210.
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and S. Hegedus, Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering (Wiley, 2010).

M. A. Green, Third Generation Photovoltaics: Advanced Solar Energy Conversion (Springer, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of spin-coating a AgNW network on a glass substrate. (b) An SEM image of the spin-coated AgNW network. Inset: a fused junction between two AgNWs after annealing at 200 °C for 30 min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured transmittance with variable sheet resistance (Rsh) of AgNW networks (solid lines), normalized to the transmittance of the bare glass substrate. The measured data for a commercial-grade TCO film (dashed line) is presented as a reference. (b) Number of photons transmitted (NPT) as a function of Rsh for the AgNW networks (red circles). The data for ITO (gray crosses) is presented as a reference [27]. The AgNW networks in the white area can outperform the ITO.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic structure of a crystalline silicon wafer solar cell with a AgNW network as an electrode. (b) Enhancement of efficiency (η), short-circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF) and open-circuit voltage (VOC) of the solar cells as a function of the annealing time at 400 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Series resistance (Rs) enhancement of the solar cells as a function of the annealing time at 400 °C. (b) – (d) evolution of the AgNW conditions by the annealing time.

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