Abstract

Light trapping is becoming of increasing importance in crystalline silicon solar cells as thinner wafers are used to reduce costs. In this work, we report on light trapping by rear-side diffraction gratings produced by nano-imprint lithography using interference lithography as the mastering technology. Gratings fabricated on crystalline silicon wafers are shown to provide significant absorption enhancements. Through a combination of optical measurement and simulation, it is shown that the crossed grating provides better absorption enhancement than the linear grating, and that the parasitic reflector absorption is reduced by planarizing the rear reflector, leading to an increase in the useful absorption in the silicon. Finally, electro-optical simulations are performed of solar cells employing the fabricated grating structures to estimate efficiency enhancement potential.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Rüdiger, M. Hermle, “Numerical analysis of locally contacted rear surface passivated silicon solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 10NA07 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, A. Luque, “A numerical study of Bi-periodic binary diffraction gratings for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3527–3535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Kray, K. R. McIntosh, “Analysis of ultrathin high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(7), 1647–1654 (2009) (a).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Glunz, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 97370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Schneiderlöchner, R. Preu, R. Lüdemann, S. W. Glunz, “Laser-fired rear contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10, 29–34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1983 (1)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bender, M.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benick, J.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bläsi, B.

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, A. N.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ching-Yin, H.

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, A.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glinsner, T.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

S. W. Glunz, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 97370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Schneiderlöchner, R. Preu, R. Lüdemann, S. W. Glunz, “Laser-fired rear contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10, 29–34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guttowski, A.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, H.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heine, C.

Hermle, M.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Rüdiger, M. Hermle, “Numerical analysis of locally contacted rear surface passivated silicon solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 10NA07 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Höhn, O.

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jifeng, L.

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kimerling, L. C.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kray, D.

D. Kray, K. R. McIntosh, “Analysis of ultrathin high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(7), 1647–1654 (2009) (a).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, V.

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lirong, Z.

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lüdemann, R.

E. Schneiderlöchner, R. Preu, R. Lüdemann, S. W. Glunz, “Laser-fired rear contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10, 29–34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

Luque, A.

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, A. Luque, “A numerical study of Bi-periodic binary diffraction gratings for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3527–3535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martí, A.

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, A. Luque, “A numerical study of Bi-periodic binary diffraction gratings for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3527–3535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. R.

D. Kray, K. R. McIntosh, “Analysis of ultrathin high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(7), 1647–1654 (2009) (a).
[CrossRef]

Mellor, A.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, A. Luque, “A numerical study of Bi-periodic binary diffraction gratings for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3527–3535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mendes, M. J.

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michl, B.

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morf, R. H.

Müller, C.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ning-Ning, F.

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peters, M.

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Plachetka, U.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Preu, R.

E. Schneiderlöchner, R. Preu, R. Lüdemann, S. W. Glunz, “Laser-fired rear contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10, 29–34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rüdiger, M.

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Rüdiger, M. Hermle, “Numerical analysis of locally contacted rear surface passivated silicon solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 10NA07 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schneiderlöchner, E.

E. Schneiderlöchner, R. Preu, R. Lüdemann, S. W. Glunz, “Laser-fired rear contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10, 29–34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzkopf, S.

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tobías, I.

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, A. Luque, “A numerical study of Bi-periodic binary diffraction gratings for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3527–3535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vratzov, B.

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wellens, C.

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, A. J.

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiaoman, D.

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

S. W. Glunz, “High-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 97370 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Sheng, A. N. Bloch, R. S. Stepleman, “Wavelength-selective absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43(6), 579–581 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on (1)

F. Ning-Ning, J. Michel, Z. Lirong, L. Jifeng, H. Ching-Yin, L. C. Kimerling, D. Xiaoman, “Design of highly efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells,” Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 54(8), 1926–1933 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Energy Procedia (3)

H. Hauser, B. Michl, V. Kübler, S. Schwarzkopf, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Nanoimprint lithography for honeycomb texturing of multicrystalline silicon,” Energy Procedia 8, 648–653 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, O. Höhn, V. Kübler, M. Peters, A. J. Wolf, “Photon Management Structures Originated by Interference Lithography,” Energy Procedia 8, 712–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Hauser, A. Mellor, A. Guttowski, C. Wellens, J. Benick, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive backside structures via nanoimprint lithography,” Energy Procedia 27, 337–342 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics (1)

H. Hauser, B. Michl, S. Schwarzkopf, V. Kübler, C. Müller, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Honeycomb Texturing of Silicon Via Nanoimprint Lithography for Solar Cell Applications,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 2(2), 114–122 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Rüdiger, M. Hermle, “Numerical analysis of locally contacted rear surface passivated silicon solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 10NA07 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

U. Plachetka, M. Bender, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, T. Glinsner, F. Lindner, H. Kurz, “Wafer scale patterning by soft UV-Nanoimprint Lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 73–74, 167–171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

D. Kray, K. R. McIntosh, “Analysis of ultrathin high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(7), 1647–1654 (2009) (a).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (3)

E. Schneiderlöchner, R. Preu, R. Lüdemann, S. W. Glunz, “Laser-fired rear contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10, 29–34 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, M. J. Mendes, A. Luque, “Upper limits to absorption enhancement in thick solar cells using diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(6), 676–687 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peters, M. Rüdiger, H. Hauser, M. Hermle, B. Bläsi, “Diffractive gratings for crystalline silicon solar cells—optimum parameters and loss mechanisms,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(7), 862–873 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

A. Mellor, I. Tobías, A. Martí, A. Luque, “A numerical study of Bi-periodic binary diffraction gratings for solar cell applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3527–3535 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

B. Bläsi, H. Hauser, C. Walk, B. Michl, A. Guttowski, A. Mellor, J. Benick, M. Peters, S. Jüchter, C. Wellens, V. Kübler, M. Hermle, and A. J. Wolf, “Photon management structures for solar cells,” in Proc. SPIE 8438, Photonics for Solar Energy Systems IV, R. Wehrspohn, and A. Gombert, eds. (SPIE, Brussels, Belgium, 2012), pp. 84380Q–84312.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1997).

D. A. Clugston and P. A. Basore, “PC1D version 5: 32-bit solar cell modeling on personal computers,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference,1997., Conference Record of the Twenty-Sixth IEEE(Anaheim, California, USA, 1997), pp. 207–210.

S. H. Zaidi, J. M. Gee, and D. S. Ruby, “Diffraction grating structures in solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2000. Conference Record of the Twenty-Eighth IEEE (2000), pp. 395–398.

P. Berger, H. Hauser, D. Suwito, S. Janz, M. Peters, B. Bläsi, and M. Hermle, “Realization and evaluation of diffractive systems on the back side of silicon solar cells,” in Proc. SPIE 7725, Photonics for Solar Energy Systems III, R. B. Wehrspohn, and A. Gombert, eds. (SPIE, Brussels, Belgium, 2010), p. 772504.

B. Fischer, “Loss analysis of crystalline silicon solar cells using photoconductance and quantum efficiency measurements,” in Physics(University of Konstanz, Konstanz, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a): A schematic diagram of the solar cell precursors fabricated in this work. (b): A photograph of a nanoimprinted linear grating on a 4-inch c-Si wafer. (c) and (d): SEM micrographs of linear (c) and crossed (d) diffraction grating textures in c-Si wafers produced by the described NIL based process chain.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A planar SiO layer deposited on a textured photo-resist-on-glass substrate via spin coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM micrographs of the cross section of the rear side of two solar cell precursors with linear grating textures. (i): DBL deposited by PECVD. (ii): DBL deposited by spin-coating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The simulated geometry for each grating structure. Each image is labeled with the corresponding sample name. In A, the transparent layer between the Si and the Al represents the DBL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra for the solar cell precursors employing the grating structures. The structure name is shown in the top left of each graph. Red circles show the measured total absorption, black curves show the simulated total absorption, green curves show the simulated silicon absorption, and blue curves show the simulated aluminium absorption. The calculated jph,Si and jph,Al for each structure is shown in the inset of each graph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured and simulated polarization dependent reflection spectrum for Sample B. TE refers to transverse electric and TM to transverse magnetic polarization.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Grating Type and DBL Deposition Technique for Each Sample

Tables Icon

Table 2 Predicted IV Characteristics of 200 µm Thick c-Si Solar Cells Employing Each Grating Structure

Tables Icon

Table 3 Predicted IV Characteristics of 40 µm Thick c-Si Solar Cells Employing Each Grating Structure

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

j ph,Si = q e Φ Am1.5G ab s Si dλ j ph,Al = q e λ<1.2μm Φ Am1.5G ab s Al dλ

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